VOLUME 84 NUMBER 3 August 2022

Current Issue

ISSN 2186-3326
(Online ISSN)
ISSN 0027-7622
(Print ISSN--v.72no.3/4)


Possible disease-protective roles of fibroblasts in cancer and fibrosis and their therapeutic application

Yukihiro Shiraki, Shinji Mii, Nobutoshi Esaki and Atsushi Enomoto
pg(s) 484 - 496

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Cancer and fibrotic diseases are characterized by continuous inflammation, tissue wounds, and injuries. Cancer is a “wound that does not heal,” and the uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells disrupts normal tissue integrity and induces stromal fibroinflammatory reactions. Fibroblasts proliferate extensively in the stroma, playing a major role in the development of these diseases. There has been considerable evidence that fibroblasts contribute to fibrosis and tissue stiffening and promote disease progression via multiple mechanisms. However, recent emerging findings, mainly derived from single-cell transcriptomic analysis, indicated that fibroblasts are functionally heterogeneous, leading to the hypothesis that both disease-promoting and -restraining fibroblasts exist. We recently showed that a fibroblast population, defined by the expression of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein Meflin may suppress but not promote fibrotic response and disease progression in cancer and fibrotic diseases. Although currently hypothetical, the primary function of Meflin-positive fibroblasts may be tissue repair after injury and cancer initiation occurred. This observation has led to the proposal of a potential therapy that converts the phenotype of fibroblasts from pro-tumor to anti-tumor. In this short review, we summarize our recent findings on the function of Meflin in the context of cancer and fibrotic diseases and discuss how we can utilize this knowledge on fibroblasts in translational medicine. We also discuss several aspects of the interpretation of survival analysis data, such as Kaplan-Meier analysis, to address the function of specific genes expressed in fibroblasts.


Pathological significance and classification of endolymphatic hydrops in otological disorders

Michihiko Sone, Tadao Yoshida, Satofumi Sugimoto, Masumi Kobayashi, Masaaki Teranishi and Shinji Naganawa
pg(s) 497 - 505

<Abstract> - < PDF >

We summarize the presence of endolymphatic hydrops (EH) in otological disorders evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of temporal bones, and propose a classification of EH based on its pathological significance. A search of the literature published in English-language journals was performed using electronic databases, especially focusing on EH-related otological disorders. Clinical articles that contained the terms EH and contrast-MRI published from 2007 to the present, with relevant human temporal bone studies, were included. The following three main points are discussed based on the results in the relevant articles: i) otological disorders that present EH, ii) current grading for evaluation of EH on MRI, and iii) a proposed classification of EH based on its pathological significance. MRI evaluation revealed that EH exists extensively not only in ears with typical Meniere’s disease (MD), but also in those with various other otological disorders. The etiological classification of EH helps to summarize ideas for determining the pathophysiology of otological disorders, while a therapeutic classification provides clues to their management. MRI evaluations of EH have led to breakthroughs in investigations of EH in otological disorders. Precise grading for evaluation and clarification of EH on MRI based on its pathological significance could provide keys to elucidating the pathophysiology of EH-related otological disorders.


Effects of serratus anterior plane block and thoracic paravertebral nerve block on analgesia, immune function and serum tumor markers in patients after thoracoscopic radical resection of lung cancer

Xiaole Liu and Jing An
pg(s) 506 - 515

<Abstract> - < PDF >

We aimed to assess the effects of serratus anterior plane block (SAPB) and thoracic paravertebral nerve block (TPVB) on analgesia, immune function and serum tumor markers in patients after thoracoscopic radical resection of lung cancer. A total of 132 patients enrolled from February 2019 to November 2020 were prospectively selected and randomly divided into 3 groups (n=44). Control group received general anesthesia. After induction of general anesthesia, TPVB or SAPB group was given TPVB or SAPB. Their clinical data, operation conditions, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score, immune function, serum tumor markers and adverse reactions were compared. TPVB and SAPB groups had lower dosage of sufentanil during operation, later time of first pressing patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCA) pump after operation and smaller number of pressing PCA pump within 48 h after operation than those of control group (P<0.05). VAS scores at rest and coughing decreased 6 and 12 h after operation in TPVB and SAPB groups compared with that in control group (P<0.05). Cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3)+, CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ ratio were higher, while CD8+ was lower 24 and 48 h after operation in TPVB and SAPB groups than those of control group (P<0.05). TPVB and SAPB groups had lower serum tumor marker levels 24 h after operation than those of control group (P<0.05). The three groups had similar incidence rates of adverse reactions (P>0.05). SAPB and TPVB can markedly improve postoperative analgesic effect, enhance immune function and decrease serum tumor marker levels in patients receiving thoracoscopic radical resection of lung cancer, without increasing adverse reactions. However, TPVB may puncture the pleura.
Patient factors influencing a delay in diagnosis in pediatric spinal cord tumors

Hiroyuki Koshimizu, Hiroaki Nakashima, Kei Ando, Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Yusuke Nishimura, Masaaki Machino, Sadayuki Ito, Shunsuke Kanbara, Taro Inoue, Hidetoshi Yamaguchi, Naoki Segi, Hiroyuki Tomita and Shiro Imagama
pg(s) 516 - 525

<Abstract> - < PDF >

The diagnosis of pediatric spinal cord tumor is frequently delayed due to the presence of non-specific symptoms. We investigated the factors influencing the delay between the first symptom presentation and the diagnosis for pediatric spinal cord tumor. We retrospectively analyzed 31 patients of age <20 years (18 men, 13 women) who underwent surgery for spinal cord tumor at a single center during 1998–2018. We extracted the relevant data on patients’ symptoms, affected spinal location (cervical: C1-7, thoracic: T1-T12, and lumbosacral: L1-S), and tumor anatomical location (extradural, intradural extramedullary, and intramedullary tumor) that could potentially affect the duration of symptom presentation prior to the diagnosis. The most common symptom presented in the patients was pain (n = 22, 71.0 %). Motor symptoms such as paralysis was associated with early diagnosis (P = 0.039). The duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis was found to be significantly longer in patients with spinal tumor in the lumbar-sacral region than in those with the involvement of the cervical and thoracic regions (2.1 ± 1.7 months vs 13.6 ± 12.1 months; P = 0.006 and 2.9 ± 2.2 months vs 13.6 ± 12.1 months; P = 0.012, respectively). Our study results demonstrated that pain was the most common symptom in the examined patients, although it did not affect the delay in diagnosis, whereas the presentation of motor symptoms was helpful in the diagnosis of pediatric spinal cord tumor and the diagnosis could be delayed in lumbar-sacral spinal tumors.
Effectiveness of a new interactive web teaching material for improving lung auscultation skills: randomized controlled trial for clinical nurses

Shintaro Higashiyama, Koji Tamakoshi and Toyoaki Yamauchi
pg(s) 526 - 538

<Abstract> - < PDF >

We developed a new interactive web-based teaching material to improve lung auscultation skills. Our objective was to investigate the effectiveness of the web-based teaching material on nurses with less than one-year work experience, using a prospective, open-label, stratified block randomized controlled trial. Of the 69 participants, 23, 22, and 24 participants were assigned to the web-based, paper-based, and control (with no intervention) groups, respectively. Using a simulator, a discrimination test on seven lung sounds, such as “normal,” “wheeze,” “rhonchi,” “coarse crackles,” “fine crackles,” “left lung diminish,” and “right lung absent,” was conducted. Next, a post-test was conducted after one-week of training. Answers with formal names were considered “correct”; those with common names, misspellings, and without left and right parts were considered “insufficient”; and wrong answers were considered “incorrect.” The control group showed no significant difference between the pre-test and post-test for any lung sounds. The paper-based group showed significant improvement in performance for “wheeze” (p=0.004) and “coarse crackles” (p=0.035). The web-based group showed a significant improvement in performance for “fine crackles” (p=0.026). The number of correct answers in the post-test was higher in the paper- and web-based groups than the control group (p=0.023). The web-based teaching materials that we had developed effectively improved the ability of new graduate nurses to auscultate lung sounds. Additionally, the results suggest that the combined use of web- and paper-based teaching materials may be more effective since the sounds that each method enhanced their ability to auscultate different lung sounds.
Satisfactory mid- to long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes after surgical treatment of radial neck fracture in 10 children

Shinsuke Takeda, Hidemasa Yoneda, Masahiro Tatebe, Toshikazu Kurahashi, So Mitsuya and Hitoshi Hirata
pg(s) 539 - 546

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Complications after surgical treatment of pediatric radial neck fractures are common. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mid- to long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes after surgical treatment of pediatric radial neck fractures. We assessed 10 children who had been surgically treated for radial neck fractures. We mainly performed percutaneous intrafocal pinning to reduce the fracture; where this was inappropriate, we performed open reduction. Mid- to long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes were assessed, as well as whether these affected patient-related outcomes (Hand 20 questionnaire) at the final follow-up. Of the 10 patients (seven boys; mean age, 9 years; age range, 5–14 years; four fractures on the right-hand side, six on the left), four each were grades II and III, and two were grade IV, according to the Judet classification. The mean follow-up time was 6.7 (range, 3.6–11.2) years. Eight patients had restricted forearm pronation. The mean radial neck angulation on the fractured side was 36° (range, 5°–96°), preoperatively, and 2° (range, 0°–11°) at the final follow-up. There were eight cases of radial head overgrowth, three of premature physeal closure, two of notching of the radial neck, and one of heterotopic ossification. According to the Leung/Peterson Classification, four patients had “excellent,” three had “good,” and three had “fair” functionality. Eight patients had a perfect score upon completing the Hand 20 questionnaire. In conclusion, postsurgical patient-related outcomes for the 10 cases were satisfactory despite slightly restricted forearm range of motion and complications detected using radiography.
Editors' Choice
Clinical impact of standardized creatinine on dose adjustment of capecitabine

Ayaka Ito, Kazuya Ichikawa, Masayuki Miyazaki, Atsunobu Sagara, Toshiki Motegi, Yuichi Ando, Koji Senzaki, Taku Nagai and Kiyofumi Yamada
pg(s) 547 - 553

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Although the Cockcroft-Gault equation is still used for the dose adjustment of many drugs that have been approved prior to creatinine standardization, the clinical impact of standardized creatinine in the dose adjustment of capecitabine is poorly understood. We focused on patients with borderline renal function and evaluated the tolerability and safety of capecitabine in patients who received capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (Cape-Ox). We retrospectively identified patients with resected colorectal cancer who had received adjuvant therapy with Cape-Ox regimen. Creatinine clearance (CrCL) was calculated by the Cockcroft–Gault equation with standardized creatinine measured using enzymatic methods, and adjusted CrCL was estimated by adding 0.2 (mg/dL) to the serum creatinine in the equation. We defined patients with “pseudo-normal” renal function as those who had an adjusted CrCL of ≤50 mL/min in patients with normal renal function (CrCL >50 mL/min). We evaluated the tolerability and grade 2 or severer adverse events of capecitabine treatment. One hundred four patients had normal and 10 had impaired renal function (CrCL <50 mL/min). Among the 104 patients with normal renal function, 23 (22.1%) had pseudo-normal renal function. Seventeen patients completed the eight cycles of Cape-Ox therapy without treatment delay or dose reduction, and all of them had truly normal renal function. The patients with pseudo-normal renal function were more likely to have grade 2 or severer thrombocytopenia than those with truly normal renal function. We should recognize correctly the clinical impact of standardized creatinine in the treatment of borderline renal function with Cape-Ox regimen in patients.
Relationships between sleep efficiency and lifestyle evaluated by objective sleep assessment: SLeep Epidemiology Project at University of Tsukuba

Yu Ikeda, Emi Morita, Kei Muroi, Yo Arai, Tomohiko Ikeda, Tsukasa Takahashi, Nagisa Shiraki, Shotaro Doki, Daisuke Hori, Yuichi Oi, Shin-ichiro Sasahara, Asuka Ishihara, Sumire Matsumoto, Masashi Yanagisawa, Makoto Satoh and Ichiyo Matsuzaki
pg(s) 554 - 569

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Objectively measured sleep efficiency has recently been shown to be associated with health problems. Although several factors have previously been reported to be associated with sleep efficiency, most of these studies were conducted on older or younger adults, and the factors associated with sleep efficiency in healthy workers remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between sleep efficiency and lifestyle factors using sleep measurement data recorded by an activity meter worn by workers. In total, 693 workers (male, 43.6%; mean age, 42.7 ± 11.3 years) were recruited from five offices in 2017. Sleep was measured over the period of 1 week by actigraphy. Workers’ attributes, lifestyle habits, and occupational stress were identified using a questionnaire, and the association of sleep efficiency with lifestyle, occupational stress, and attributes was explored by logistic regression analysis. A logistic regression analysis using attributes and occupational stress as adjustment variables revealed that “longer sleeping hours on weekends than on weekdays” [odds ratios (OR), 0.66; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.47–0.94], “water ingestion at bedtime” [OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.28–3.41], and “smartphone use at bedtime” [OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.28–2.83] were associated with decreased sleep efficiency. This study found that lifestyle habits were associated with sleep efficiency among workers. It is necessary to verify whether intervention in these lifestyle habits would contribute to the improvement of sleep efficiency in future studies.
Relationship between changes in physical function parameters and Roland-Morris disability questionnaire score after decompression surgery for lumbar spinal canal stenosis

Hiroto Takenaka, Hideshi Sugiura, Mitsuhiro Kamiya, Kasuri Nishihama, Atsuki Ito, Junya Suzuki, Morio Kawamura and Shuntaro Hanamura
pg(s) 570 - 579

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Although decompression surgery for lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSS) improves leg symptoms, low back pain (LBP), and disability, the factors related to the improvement of subjective disability have not been studied sufficiently. The purpose of the study was to clarify the relationship between subjective disability and objective physical function parameters. A total of 51 patients who underwent decompression were included and evaluated preoperatively and 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Patient-reported outcomes related to activity limitation due to LBP were evaluated using Roland–Morris disability questionnaire (RDQ) and VAS (Visual Analog Scale). Physical function was assessed using 6-min walk distance (6MWD) and trunk muscle strength. Univariate analysis and multivariable linear regression analysis were performed to identify significant factors for RDQ score change. The 6- and 12-month postoperative RDQ scores, VAS scores, and trunk extensor strength significantly improved relative to the preoperative values. In the univariate analysis, age, changes in VAS (LBP, leg pain, and numbness) scores, and change in 6MWD were associated with the RDQ score change (p < 0.05). Multivariable linear regression showed that 6MWD changes were significantly associated with RDQ score changes, explaining 41% of the variance in the RDQ score change. This study showed the change in 6MWD was significantly associated with the RDQ score change. Our results suggest that improving 6MWD may reduce disability in activities of daily living.
The effect of a 6-month walking program on biochemical parameters in sedentary adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Aleksandar Antonijević, Emilija Stojanović, Aleksandar Jevtić, Vladimir Živković, Sergey Bolevich and Vladimir Jakovljević
pg(s) 580 - 592

<Abstract> - < PDF >

This study assessed the effect of a 6-month walking program on biochemical parameters in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. A group of 40 sedentary patients with type-2 diabetes volunteered to participate in this study. Plasma glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase, urea, creatinine, uric acid, C-reactive protein (CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were measured. Differences in outcome measures between pre- and post-intervention were assessed using paired t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test, with effect sizes interpreted separately for normally (μ2 : small 0.01–0.06, moderate 0.061–0.14, and large >0.14) and non-normally distributed data (r: small = 0.1–0.3, moderate = 0.3–0.5, and large >0.5). Significant (p < 0.001) large decrease between the initial and final measurements was observed for glucose (r = 0.62), total cholesterol (μ2 = 0.88), triglycerides (r = 0.62), LDL (r = 0.61), AST (μ2 = 0.82), ALT (μ2 = 0.79), gamma-glutamyl transferase (μ2 = 0.79), urea (μ2 = 0.92), creatinine (r = 0.62), uric acid (r = 0.62), CRP (μ2 = 0.80), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (μ2 = 0.58). On the other hand, significant (p < 0.001) large increase between the initial and final measurements was observed for HDL (r = 0.62). Supervised 6-month aerobic walking program is an effective strategy in (1) reducing hyperglycemia; (2) increasing HDL and reducing LDL, and triglycerides; (3) reducing plasma biomarkers of liver dysfunction, kidney dysfunction, and inflammation in type-2 diabetic patients.
Children with neuro-developmental disorders at Center for Child and Adolescent Mental Health in Cambodia

Sreyleap Moeun, Jegannathan Bhoomikumar, Puthy Pat, Tetsuyoshi Kariya, Yunosuke Suzuki, Nobuyuki Hamajima, Dearozet Sok and Eiko Yamamoto
pg(s) 593 - 606

<Abstract> - < PDF >

The Center for Child and Adolescent Mental Health (CCAMH) is one of the centers that have psychiatric specialists for children in Cambodia. This study aims to understand the characteristics of children with neuro-developmental disorders, especially autism spectrum disorder (ASD), at CCAMH. This study included 440 cases that were randomly chosen from 2,147 new patients at CCAMH in 2018–2019 and were aged 0–12 years. Socio-demographic factors, parent’s information, obstetrical factors, and clinical data were collected from patients’ records. A logistic regression analysis and Pearson’s chi-square test were used to compare the characteristics between children who were finally diagnosed with ASD and the others (non-ASD). Of the 440 patients, most were male (75.2%), 0–4 years old (57.7%), and diagnosed with ASD (50.0%). Common symptoms were delay of speech, playing alone, and hyperactivity. ASD was significantly more prevalent in male patients compared to females and in the 0–4 years age group compared to the 5–12 years age group. Parents who lived in Phnom Penh and had high education were more likely to visit the CCAMH with their children who were diagnosed with ASD. Regarding treatment, approximately half of all 440 patients had family counselling and psychosocial education. ASD patients had more speech therapy, special education and structured teaching, and networking and coordination therapy compared to non-ASD patients. To provide education and therapy to children with ASD and their parents from the early stage, information about the center and ASD should be widely distributed to all parents in Cambodia.
Association between serum carotenoids and premature mortality in a population-based case-control study

Ryosuke Fujii, Koji Suzuki, Hiroya Yamada, Miyuki Kawado, Shuji Hashimoto, Yoshiki Tsuboi, Kenji Wakai, Hiroyasu Iso, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Yoshihisa Fujino, Akiko Tamakoshi and JACC Study Group
pg(s) 607 - 620

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Carotenoids are abundant pigments mainly contained in vegetables and fruits, and show antioxidant properties by quenching free radicals in human body. Few studies have investigated associations between serum carotenoid levels and premature mortality. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between serum carotenoid level and premature mortality in a Japanese population. This study included 446 Japanese adults (174 men, aged of 40–64) recruited as participants in the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study. Serum carotenoid level was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Premature mortality was defined as death before 65 years old during the follow-up period. Premature mortality was ascertained in 60 men (34.5%) and 65 women (23.9%). In men, compared to the 1st tertile of serum β-cryptoxanthin and provitamin A, those who were in the 3rd tertile had lower risks of premature all-cause mortality (OR, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.07–0.47 for β-cryptoxanthin, and 0.24, 0.09–0.61 for provitamin A). In women, compared to the 1st tertile of serum β-cryptoxanthin, those who were in the 3rd tertile had higher risks of premature all-cause mortality (OR, 95% CI: 1.94, 1.00–4.03). These significant associations were observed in analyses for premature cancer mortality. We found significant associations between higher levels of serum β-cryptoxanthin and provitamin A and lower risks of premature mortality among Japanese men, while a different directional association was found in women. Although these findings suggest roles of serum carotenoids on premature mortality, further studies are needed to validate this association in other populations.
The finger-to-nose test improved diagnosis of cerebrovascular events in patients presenting with isolated dizziness in the emergency department

Kazuki Nishida, Takuya Usami, Nana Matsumoto, Mitsuaki Nishikimi, Kunihiko Takahashi and Shigeyuki Matsui
pg(s) 621 - 629

<Abstract> - < PDF >

It is difficult to identify patients with isolated dizziness caused by cerebrovascular events. The estimated risk of cerebrovascular events in isolated dizziness patients is not completely understood. We aimed to evaluate the association of the finger-to-nose test (FNT) in diagnosing cerebrovascular events in isolated dizziness patients in emergency departments (EDs). We combined 2 datasets from a single center for consecutive isolated dizziness patients, with the same inclusion and exclusion criteria. Those who met any of the following criteria were excluded: no FNT data, age < 16 years, and psychological trauma. The primary outcome was cerebrovascular event, which was defined as cerebral stroke due to cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage, vertebral artery dissection, or transient ischemic attack. In the combined dataset, there were 357 patients complaining of isolated dizziness and 31 cerebrovascular events. After adjusted by 5 previously reported risk factors for cerebrovascular event, (age, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, nystagmus), a multivariable logistic model analysis showed that the existence of FNT abnormalities was significantly associated with cerebrovascular events (odds ratio, 25.3; 95% confidence interval, 7.3–88.2; p < 0.001). There was a significant increase in predictive accuracy, with an AUC increase of 0.116 in the in a ROC analysis (p = 0.023). The existence of FNT abnormalities is considered as a strong risk factor that could be useful for predicting cerebrovascular events in isolated dizziness patients. We recommend the FNT for screening isolated dizziness patients in EDs to judge whether they need to undergo further diagnostic evaluation.
Editors' Choice
Multicenter survey for carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales in central Japan

Yuki Hara, Mitsutaka Iguchi, Nobuyuki Tetsuka, Hiroshi Morioka, Aki Hirabayashi, Masato Suzuki, Yuka Tomita, Keisuke Oka and Tetsuya Yagi
pg(s) 630 - 639

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) raise concerns about the treatment options for infectious diseases and infection control. We conducted a multicenter study to clarify the molecular epidemiology of CPE in the Aichi Prefecture during the first 3-month period from 2015 to 2019. Carbapenemase production was screened using a modified carbapenem inactivation method, and the genotypes of the carbapenemase genes were determined by polymerase chain reaction sequencing. Genetic relatedness was analyzed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Twenty-four hospitals participated in this study. Of the 56,494 Enterobacterales strains detected during the study period, 341 (0.6%) that met the susceptibility criteria were analyzed. Sixty-five of the 341 strains were determined to be CPE, with an incidence rate of 0.12% (65/56,494). The bacterial species responsible for CPE were Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 24), Enterobacter cloacae complex (n = 23), Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 10), and Escherichia coli (n = 8). Most of the carbapenemase genotypes were IMP-1 (58/65), and only three were IMP-6 types. Three E. coli strains that produced NDM-5 were detected. MLST analysis showed that Sequence type (ST) 78 was predominant in E. cloacae complex CPE (14/23, 60.9%). Meanwhile, various STs were detected in carbapenemase-producing (CP) K. pneumoniae, of which ST37 and ST517 were the most common. The incidence rate of CPE in this region was comparable to national data. This 3-month surveillance revealed the spread of ST78 of CP E. cloacae complex and ST517 and ST592 of CP K. pneumoniae across hospitals, indicating the need to strengthen regional infection control programs.


Achieving good neurological outcome by combining decompressive craniectomy for acute subdural hematoma and transarterial embolization of intraperitoneal injured arteries for multiple severe trauma: a case report

Ko Okada, Takafumi Tanei, Takenori Kato, Takehiro Naito, Yuta Koketsu, Risa Ito, Kento Hirayama and Toshinori Hasegawa
pg(s) 640 - 647

<Abstract> - < PDF >

A 22-year-old woman jumped from the 4th floor of her apartment in an attempt to commit suicide. Whole-body computed tomography showed multiple injuries, including right acute subdural hematoma, left hemopneumothorax, several fractures, intraperitoneal hemorrhage, and spleen injury. Her consciousness deteriorated rapidly, and her right pupil was dilated. Furthermore, she had unstable vital signs including blood pressure of approximately 70/40 mmHg, pulse about 150/minute, respiratory rate 25/minute, and percutaneous oxygen saturation of 90% on 10 L oxygen. Intratracheal intubation and insertion of a thoracostomy tube were performed in the emergency room. Due to concomitant brain herniation and hemorrhagic shock, simultaneous decompressive craniectomy for acute subdural hematoma and transarterial embolization of intraperitoneal injured arteries were performed in our hybrid operating room. Despite rapid blood transfusions, the blood pressure did not increase. After starting embolization of the injured arteries of the spleen, the blood pressure increased, thereby making it possible to remove the acute subdural hematoma, and hemostasis was then achieved. Four hours later, the acute subdural hematoma and intracranial pressure increased again, and re-operation was performed in the normal operating room. Cranioplasty and clavicular fracture reduction were performed 14 days later. She recovered enough to talk and walk, and her consciousness stabilized. Interviews with her and her family by a psychiatrist determined that abnormal behaviors had first appeared 2 months earlier. She was diagnosed with acute and transient psychotic disorders, and treatment was started. The patient was discharged home 1 month later with mild disability of her higher-order brain function.
Upper thoracic empyema and concomitant superior vena cava syndrome treated with reconstructive surgery using a pedicled omental flap

Masashi Ono, Hirohisa Suzuki, Shinsuke Matsumoto, Keisuke Takanari and Yuzuru Kamei
pg(s) 648 - 655

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome refers to a constellation of symptoms secondary to obstruction of blood flow through the SVC. In this condition, venous blood that usually drains into the SVC is diverted into the inferior vena cava (IVC) via collateral veins. Reconstructive surgery is challenging in such cases owing to the anomalous venous system. In this case report, we describe reconstructive surgery using a pedicled omental flap in a patient with upper thoracic empyema and concomitant SVC syndrome. A 68-year-old man underwent resection of malignant thymoma, the bilateral brachiocephalic veins, and a part of the right upper lobe, followed by polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft placement for venous system reconstruction, 2 years prior to presentation. He developed postoperative upper thoracic cavity empyema, which necessitated PTFE graft removal. Although the infection was controlled after 2 months, multiple right upper lobe pulmonary fistulas persisted, and the patient was referred to our department for further evaluation. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed SVC syndrome characterized by SVC obstruction and consequent drainage of venous blood from the upper trunk into the IVC via collateral vessels. We debrided necrotic and infected tissues, and a pedicled omental flap was placed for upper lobe fistula coverage. The patient showed an uncomplicated postoperative course, and no recurrent empyema or pulmonary fistulas were observed 3 years postoperatively. Flaps associated with the SVC system show high venous pressures. The use of a pedicled omental flap was deemed feasible because this graft reaches the upper thorax even though it is associated with the IVC system.
Paraplegia due to spinal epidural lipoma without spinal dysraphism in an adolescent patient: a case report

Naoki Segi, Hiroaki Nakashima, Kei Ando, Masaaki Machino, Sadayuki Ito, Akiyuki Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Koshimizu, Hiroyuki Tomita, Takayuki Nojima and Shiro Imagama
pg(s) 656 - 663

<Abstract> - < PDF >

We report the case of a rare lipoma arising in the epidural space of a 14-year-old boy without spinal dysraphism. Lipomas are rare in pediatric soft tissue tumors, accounting for only about 4% of cases. The incidence of an intraspinal epidural lipoma without spinal dysraphism is extremely rare in pediatric patients. In this case, the patient had progressive motor deficits in the lower extremities and difficulty in urination and defecation. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an extradural tumor compressing the spinal cord at the T3–T7 level. Because of the progressive neurological deficits, we performed an emergency surgery. The tumor was completely resected en bloc, and histopathology revealed mature adipose tissue with fibrous septa, diagnosed as atypical lipomatous tumor / well-differentiated liposarcoma. The patient fully recovered and there was no tumor recurrence for 6 years since the surgery. However, re-examination using fluorescence in situ hybridization after 6 years of surgery changed the diagnosis to lipoma as no amplification of murine double-minute type 2 oncogene was observed. In liposarcoma, histopathological diagnosis using fluorescence in situ hybridization is mandatory. Our case illustrates that immunohistochemical diagnosis alone can be misleading. Hence, prompt surgery is required for progressive neuropathy.
Cases of allergic coronary syndrome (Kounis syndrome) : what we should know

Türkay Akbaş, Adnan Kaya, Gülşah Altun, Ümit Eşbah and Attila Önmez
pg(s) 664 - 672

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Kounis syndrome (KS) is an acute coronary syndrome that occurs with allergic, hypersensitivity, anaphylactic, or anaphylactoid reactions associated with mast cell activation, and entails significant morbidity and mortality risks. We present four cases of acute coronary syndrome developing after insect bites, chemotherapy, and coronary stent implantation. Two patients were lost due to anaphylactic shock-related multiorgan failures and sudden cardiac death. Since a wide range of drugs, foods, environmental conditions, and disease states may be associated with KS, all physicians must be aware of the syndrome.
Challenges in left sleeve pneumonectomy in the left lateral decubitus position

Shota Nakamura, Takayuki Fukui, Hideki Ito, Masaki Goto, Naoki Ozeki and Toyofumi Fengshi Chen-Yoshikawa
pg(s) 673 - 677

<Abstract> - < PDF >

We report the case of a 20-year-old woman with carinal adenoid cystic carcinoma who underwent left sleeve pneumonectomy in the left lateral decubitus position, during which severe desaturation was encountered. After transecting the left main bronchus, the left lung was selectively intubated and ventilated. However, oxygenation was inadequate. Hence, venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was introduced. Initially, Barclay’s procedure was planned to preserve the left lung, but this plan was altered due to the extent of the tumor and unstable ventilation. After the lesion was removed, the trachea and right main bronchus were anastomosed end-to-end. During left pneumonectomy, the right lung was selectively ventilated, but oxygen saturation (SpO2) dropped to <70% despite ECMO. SpO2 improved on additionally ventilating the left lung using another breathing circuit. Temporary right chest closure was performed with ventilation of the left lung across the thoracotomy wound. The patient was turned to the semi-supine position, and tolerated selective right lung ventilation with ECMO. Subsequently, left thoracotomy and pneumonectomy were successfully performed. Careful management is required for desaturation in left sleeve pneumonectomy in the left lateral decubitus position.
Spontaneous regression of asymptomatic tumefactive perivascular spaces in the anterior temporal lobe

Miki Hashida, Yoshitaka Nagashima, Yusuke Nishimura, Kaoru Eguchi, Toshiaki Taoka, Hisashi Kawai and Ryuta Saito
pg(s) 678 - 685

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Perivascular spaces are fluid-filled spaces that surround the perforating vessels of the brain and are normal findings on brain imaging. These are usually asymptomatic and are considered a manifestation of aging. Perivascular spaces occasionally undergo significant enlargement and are referred to as tumefactive perivascular spaces, which are often indistinguishable from neoplastic lesions. Spontaneous regression of tumefactive perivascular spaces during follow-up is rare. We report the imaging findings and clinical course of a patient who showed spontaneous regression of tumefactive perivascular spaces in the anterior temporal lobe, together with a literature review and discussion regarding the characteristics and pathogenesis of spontaneous regression of tumefactive perivascular spaces. Most studies in the available literature report tumefactive perivascular spaces in the anterior temporal lobe; in our view, the characteristics of anterior temporal lobe tumefactive perivascular spaces may differ from those of tumefactive perivascular spaces that occur at other locations.


Black ascites

Yasuyoshi Sato, Naomi Hayashi and Shunji Takahashi
pg(s) 686 - 688

<Abstract> - < PDF >