VOLUME 83 NUMBER 1 February 2021

Current Issue

ISSN 2186-3326
(Online ISSN)
ISSN 0027-7622
(Print ISSN--v.72no.3/4)

Impact Factor(2020)
 1.131

REVIEW ARTICLE

Editors' Choice
Treatment strategy for upper cervical epidural abscess: a literature review

Takaomi Kobayashi, Hiroshi Ureshino, Tadatsugu Morimoto, Chisato Shimanoe, Ko Ikuta, Motoki Sonohata and Masaaki Mawatari
pg(s) 1 - 20

<Abstract> - < PDF >

We aimed to determine available evidences in the literature regarding surgical approaches and methods, timing of surgical interventions, duration of perioperative antibiotics, and duration of nonsurgical treatments (antibiotics administration) in patients with upper cervical (occiput–C2) epidural abscess (UCEA). We performed a literature review of the articles on surgical interventions and antibiotic therapy to treat UCEA, searching the PubMed database for relevant articles published in the English language (as of March 2020). In total, 53 patients with UCEA were identified. Permanent limb paralysis or death was observed in 1/15 (6.7%) patients who received the transoral approach and 2/15 (13.3%) patients who received the transcervi-cal approach, 1/26 (3.8%) patients who underwent surgery before the onset of paralysis, and 2/4 (50.0%) patients who underwent surgery after the onset of paralysis. In 85%–89% of cases, antibiotic administration was continued for 6–12 weeks, which was determined by the confirmation of reduced inflammatory response and/or abscess disappearance on imaging. Differences in surgical approaches may not be associated with the incidence of permanent limb paralysis or death. Surgical interventions before limb paralysis onset are recommended in UCEA patients. In perioperative and nonoperative treatments, antibiotic administration for 6–12 weeks may be supported based on the confirmation of reduced inflammatory response and/or abscess disappearance on imaging. Further investigations are needed.

ORIGINAL PAPERS

Analysis of relationship between superior hypophyseal artery visualization and preservation and postoperative visual field deficit in paraclinoid aneurysm

Masato Otawa, Takashi Izumi, Masahiro Nishihori, Tetsuya Tsukada, Ryosuke Oshima, Tomomi Kawaguchi, Shunsaku Goto, Mizuka Ikezawa, Asuka Elisabeth Kropp, Yoshio Araki, Kenji Uda and Toshihiko Wakabayashi
pg(s) 21 - 30

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Direct surgery for paraclinoid aneurysms can result in visual field deficit owing to compromised blood flow to the superior hypophyseal artery (SHA). However, it is rarely visualized in angiography, and discus-sions regarding its preservation in the field of neuro-endovascular treatment are limited. Biplane angiographic suite with high spatial resolution has been used at our institution since 2014. Since then, there were a few cases where SHAs could be visualized via digital subtraction angiography. We retrospectively analyzed the relationship between the presences and abscence of SHAs in paraclinoid aneurysms and post-procedural visual field deficit. Sixty-three paraclinoid aneuryms treated by neuro-endovascular procedure in 2014–2018 at our neurosurgery department were analyzed. Pre- and post-procedural multiplanar reconstruction imagings of three-dimensional rotation angiography were analyzed to retrospectively investigate the SHAs. SHAs were visualized in 26 patients (41%) and the median number of pre-procedurally visualized SHAs was 0 (interquartile range 0–1). Their origins were the aneurysmal necks in 11 patients (42%). In two of the 11 cases, they were noticed before coil embolization and were able to be preserved after the procedure. In the remaining nine cases, they were not pre-procedurally detected, and coiling was normally conducted. Visual field deficit occurred in one of these nine cases, but symptoms were transient, and the patient fully recovered. Because SHAs could be visualized in >40% cases and no visual field defects occurred in cases that SHAs could be identified and preserved preoperatively, we recommend their preservation during coil embolization for paraclinoid aneurysms.
Relationship between nutritional status and phase angle as a noninvasive method to predict malnutrition by sex in older inpatients

Yuta Kubo, Kento Noritake, Daiki Nakashima, Keisuke Fujii and Kazumasa Yamada
pg(s) 31 - 40

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Phase angle has been suggested as a useful, noninvasive, and objective index to evaluate the nutritional status of older people. However, there are no studies analyzing the relationship between nutritional status and phase angle in older patients, according to sex. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between phase angle and malnutrition, and to calculate cut-off points of malnutrition with phase angle in older inpatients, according to sex. This study was a retrospective cross-sectional study. Participants were older inpatients of a rehabilitation unit, and data within 1 week of hospitalization were collected from the medical records. We collected data of demographics, phase angle, and the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index. Phase angle was measured with InBody S10. To confirm whether phase angle is an important factor in predicting malnutrition, we conducted binary logistic regression analysis. In addition, to determine the cut-off points of malnutrition in older inpatients, we used the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve. Participants included 59 men (mean age 76.5 years) and 101 women (mean age 78.8 years). As a result of statistical analysis, phase angle was an important factor related to malnutrition in both male and female inpatients. Our findings showed that cut-off points of 4.03 degrees (sensitivity; 87.0%, specificity; 75.9%) in male patients and 3.65 degrees (sensitivity; 78.6%, specificity; 60.5%) in female patients could be used to predict malnutrition. The results of this study suggest that phase angle may be useful as an indicator to predict the nutritional status of older inpatients.
The effect of simulated gestational weight gain on balance, gait, and fear of falling

Tomoe Inoue-Hirakawa, Arisa Ito, Saki Iguchi, Hikari Watanabe, Chikako Kato, Hideshi Sugiura, and Shigeyuki Suzuki
pg(s) 41 - 49

<Abstract> - < PDF >

The effects of pregnancy on balance with the eyes closed and maximum walking speed remain unclari-fied. The present study aimed to examine the effect of simulated gestational weight gain on balance, gait, and fear of falling in nulligravid women to enhance understanding of the impact of gestational weight gain. We prospectively evaluated the following outcomes in 24 healthy nulligravid women with and without a maternity-simulation jacket that simulated third-trimester pregnancy. To measure balance, we used the single-leg-stance test with eyes open and closed, and the functional reach test. We evaluated gait function by measuring walking speed, step length, and cadence at self-selected and maximum speeds. We used the timed-up-and-go test as a comprehensive measure of gait and balance, and the modified falls efficacy scale to evaluate fear of falling. Differences in these parameters between a simulated gestational weight gain condition and a “nonpregnant” condition were assessed. Simulated gestational weight gain caused significantly worse performances in the single-leg-stance test with eyes open and closed, functional reach test, walking speed, step length at self-selected and maximum speeds, and timed-up-and-go test. The effect size was larger for the single-leg-stance test with eyes closed than with eyes open. The average score for each modified falls efficacy scale item ranged from 4.7–8.5. In conclusion, balance decreased with simulated gestational weight gain, and balance may be more affected without visual feedback. Simulated gestational weight gain resulted in worse gait function at both self-selected and maximum speeds.
Increase in the peripheral blood methylglyoxal levels in 10% of hospitalized chronic schizophrenia patients

Shingo Yoshioka, Hiroko Odani, Tadaaki Furuhashi, Tsutomu Tanaka, and Toyoaki Ogawa
pg(s) 51 - 61

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Increasing evidence indicates that enhanced peripheral carbonyl stress markers exist in subtype of schizophrenia, although it may not be the primary cause.
This study aimed to investigate whether plasma concentrations of methylglyoxal, 3-deoxy-glucosone, and glyoxal, which are reactive intermediates of protein metabolism in carbonyl stress, are changed in patients with schizophrenia and can function as potential biomarkers for schizophrenia with enhanced carbonyl stress.
Plasma concentrations of these di-carbonyls were simultaneously estimated in 40 patients with schizo-phrenia and 40 healthy controls. As a result, no statistically significant differences were observed in mean plasma concentrations of three di-carbonyls between patients and controls. However, a remarkable increase in methylglyoxal concentrations was observed in four patients but not in controls. This increase was not found with regard to 3-deoxyglucosone and glyoxal both of patients and controls.
Our correlation analysis showed that both the plasma methylglyoxal and glyoxal concentrations were significantly correlated with 3-deoxyglucosone concentrations in 40 patients and 40 controls. However, the plasma methylglyoxal concentrations did not show any significant correlation with the glyoxal concentra-tions in the patients or the controls. In four patients with extremely high methylglyoxal levels, the plasma methylglyoxal and glyoxal concentrations were not correlated to the 3-deoxyglucosone concentrations. Methylglyoxal is a physiological substrate of the glyoxalase system, and the accelerated accumulation of this compound lowers the glyoxalase I activity.
These results suggested that this increase in four patients with high methylglyoxal levels may indicate the presence of a subtype of chronic schizophrenia that is associated with enhanced carbonyl stress.
Differences in psychological distress between managers and non-managers in female workers: a cross-sectional study in Tsukuba Science City, Japan

Nagisa Shiraki, Shotaro Doki, Yu Ikeda, Tomohiko Ikeda, Tsukasa Takahashi, Christina-Sylvia Andrea, Daisuke Hori, Yuichi Oi, Shin-ichiro Sasahara and Ichiyo Matsuzaki
pg(s) 63 - 74

<Abstract> - < PDF >

The Japanese government has made efforts towards the advancement of women into society; thereby, the proportion of female managers has been increasing. Recent reports have shown that managers tend to be in poor health condition. However, little research has been conducted to examine the psychological health of female managers. Therefore, the aim of our study was to reveal the difference of psychological distress by occupational position in female workers with focus on occupational stress.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2017 via an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire distributed to workers in Tsukuba City, Japan. Student unpaired t test was used to compare occupational stress and psychological distress by occupational position. Binomial logistic regressions were used to analyze factors that affect psychological distress separately in managers and non-managers.
A total of 1543 women (168 managers, 1375 non-managers) were analyzed. Managers showed higher occupational stress but lower psychological distress than non-managers. Problems in interpersonal relation-ships was positively associated with psychological distress, whereas occupation as a researcher/academic was negatively associated with psychological distress in managers. Mental workload and problems in interpersonal relationships were positively associated with psychological distress, whereas reward from work and support were negatively associated with psychological distress in non-managers. Managers and non-managers both showed an association between psychological distress and problems of interpersonal relationships. Non-managers might have higher psychological distress due to lower reward from work. It is important to increase reward from work and to develop female workers’ interpersonal skills in order to reduce the psychological distress of female workers.
Myh9 R702C is associated with erythroid abnormality with splenomegaly in mice

Takeshi Kanematsu, Nobuaki Suzuki, Shogo Tamura, Atsuo Suzuki, Yuichi Ishikawa, Akira Katsumi, Hitoshi Kiyoi, Hidehiko Saito, Shinji Kunishima, Tetsuhito Kojima and Tadashi Matsushita
pg(s) 75 - 86

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Myh9 disorders are characterized by giant platelets, thrombocytopenia, and Döhle body-like cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in granulocytes. However, whether these disorders cause any changes in erythroid cells has yet to be determined. This study analyzed the influence of Myh9 R702C, as one of the most commonly detected Myh9 disorders, on erythroid cells in a mouse model.
Knock-in mice expressing Myh9 R702C mutation either systemically or specific to hematological cells (R702C and R702C vav1 mice, respectively) were used in this study. Both displayed lower hemoglobin and higher erythropoietin levels than wild-type (WT) mice, along with significant splenomegaly. Flow cytometric analysis revealed erythroblasts present at a higher rate than WT mice in the spleen. However, no obvious abnormalities were seen in erythroid differentiation from megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitor to erythrocyte. Cell culture assay by fetal liver and colony assay also showed normal progression of erythroid differentiation from erythroid burst-forming unit to red blood cell.
In conclusion, R702C and R702C vav1 mice displayed erythroid abnormality with splenomegaly. However, erythroid differentiation showed no obvious abnormality. Further research is required to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.
Challenges for Joint Commission International accreditation: performance of orthopedic surgeons based on International Patient Safety Goals

Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Kei Ando, Hiroaki Nakashima, Masaaki Machino, Shunsuke Kanbara, Sadayuki Ito, Taro Inoue, Hidetoshi Yamaguchi, Naoki Ishiguro and Shiro Imagama
pg(s) 87 - 92

<Abstract> - < PDF >

The Joint Commission International (JCI) is a US-based organization that accredits and certifies hospitals worldwide. Among the requirements for accreditation, the JCI emphasizes continuous quality improvement (CQI) with regard to international patient safety goals (IPSGs). Our university hospital treats about 26,000 hospitalized patients and 600,000 outpatients annually, and our goal is patient safety in compliance with IPSGs. The purpose of this study is to examine the activities of orthopedic surgeons in preparation for JCI accreditation, including clear identification of patients, preoperative timeout and marking to ensure correct surgery, timely approval of CT/MRI reports, care with pain management, prevention of infection, setting of quality indicators and daily monitoring, and teamwork. Examiners from the JCI visited our hospital to review medical records and documents, and to interview patients, nurses and doctors. There were 1270 evaluation items covering 16 fields, including reviews of IPSGs, patient evaluation and care, infection prevention and control, and governance and leadership. Most importantly, the efforts of all the medical staff in our hospital in obtaining the first JCI accreditation among national university hospitals in Japan have promoted the safety and quality of medical care from the perspective of the patient.
Editors' Choice
Prognostic utility of multipoint nutritional screening for hospitalized patients with acute decompensated heart failure

Tomonobu Takikawa, Takuya Sumi, Kunihiko Takahara, Shiou Ohguchi, Mitsutoshi Oguri, Hideki Ishii and Toyoaki Murohara
pg(s) 93 - 105

<Abstract> - < PDF >

This study aimed to evaluate the impact of serial changes in nutritional status on 1-year events including all-cause mortality or rehospitalization owing to heart failure (HF) among hospitalized patients with acute decompensated HF (ADHF). The study subjects comprised 253 hospitalized patients with ADHF. The controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score was assessed both at hospital admission and discharge. The subjects were divided into three groups according to nutritional status using CONUT score: normal (0 and 1), mild risk (2–4), and moderate to severe risk defined as malnutrition (5–12). We observed nutritional status was improved or not. The incidence of malnutrition was 30.4% at hospital admission and 23.7% at discharge, respectively. Malnutrition was independently associated with 1-year events among hospitalized patients with ADHF. Presence or absence of improvement in nutritional status was significantly associated with 1-year events (P < 0.05), that was independent of percentage change in plasma volume in multivariate Cox regression analyses. We determined a reference model, including gender and estimated glomerular filtration rate, using multivariate logistic regression analysis (P < 0.05). Adding the absence of improvement in nutritional status during hospitalization to the reference model significantly improved both NRI and IDI (0.563, P < 0.001 and 0.039, P = 0.001). Furthermore, malnutrition at hospital discharge significantly improved NRI (0.256, P = 0.036) In conclusion, serial changes in the nutritional status evaluated on the basis of multiple measurements may provide more useful information to predict 1-year events than single measurement at hospital admission or discharge in hospitalized patients with ADHF.
Usefulness of web search queries for early detection of diseases in infants

Shuji Yamaguchi, Akinari Hinoki, Kota Tsubouchi, Hizuru Amano, Akira Tajima and Hiroo Uchida
pg(s) 107 - 111

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Early detection of diseases is critical in infants. This study evaluates the usefulness of web searches in predicting diseases in order to encourage guardians to consult a doctor promptly if their children are ill. We collected six months of search queries from Yahoo! JAPAN Search between October 2016 and March 2017. Using a machine learning model, we investigated the accuracy of the search query’s ability to predict the diagnosis of biliary atresia and hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. Both diseases were modeled with an accuracy of approximately 80%, and symptoms related to the disease were significant features in the model. These findings suggest the possibility of detecting diseases from web search queries performed by guardians. Through future research, we intend to propose a method that uses web search queries for early detection of these diseases by providing appropriate and timely information to support the guardians of patients.
Factors associated with neonatal mortality in a tertiary hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

Ponloeu Leak, Eiko Yamamoto, Pisey Noy, Dane Keo, Sidonn Krang, Tetsuyoshi Kariya, Yu Mon Saw, Meng Siek and Nobuyuki Hamajima
pg(s) 113 - 124

<Abstract> - < PDF >

This study aimed to identify hospital neonatal mortality rate (NMR) and the causes of neonatal deaths, and to understand risk factors associated with neonatal mortality in a national tertiary hospital in Cambodia. The study included all newborn infants, aged 0–28 days old, hospitalized in the Pediatrics department of Khmer-Soviet Friendship Hospital between January 2016 and December 2017. In total, 925 infants were included in the study. The mean gestational age was 35.9 weeks (range, 24–42 weeks). Preterm infants and low birth weight accounted for 47.5% and 56.7%, respectively. With respect to payment methods, the government (53.5%) and non-governmental organizations (NGO) (13.7%) paid the fees as the families were not in a financial position to do so. The hospital NMR at the Pediatrics department was 9.3%. Respiratory distress syndrome (37.2%) was the main cause of deaths followed by hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (31.4%) and neonatal infection (21.0%). Factors associated with neonatal mortality were Apgar score at 5th minute <7 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.57), payment by the government or NGO (AOR = 11.32), admission due to respiratory distress (AOR = 11.94), and hypothermia on admission (AOR = 9.41). The hospital NMR in the Pediatrics department was 9.3% (95% confidence interval 7.50–11.35) at Khmer-Soviet Friendship Hospital; prematurity and respiratory distress syndrome were the major causes of neonatal mortality. Introducing continuous positive airway pressure machine for respiratory distress syndrome and creating neonatal resuscitation guidelines and preventing hypothermia in delivery rooms are required to reduce the high NMR.
Case-control study of postprocedural arterial puncture site hemorrhage after neuroendovascular treatment

Yosuke Tamari, Takashi Izumi, Masahiro Nishihori, Tasuku Imai, Masashi Ito, Tetsuya Tsukada, Mamoru Ishida and Toshihiko Wakabayashi
pg(s) 125 - 133

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Puncture site hemorrhage following femoral artery catheterization is a significant cause of morbidity. The aim of this case-control study was to identify predictors of postprocedural arterial hemorrhage at the puncture site. We retrospectively reviewed 255 patients who underwent endovascular treatment at our institution over a 23-month period and classified them into a hemorrhage group and a non-hemorrhage group. Puncture site hemorrhage occurred in 15 patients (5.9%). Clinical factors associated with a sig-nificantly increased risk of puncture site bleeding included patients whose postoperative activated clotting time of ≥300 seconds before removal of the sheath (9 patients, 11.8%; P<0.05), those who received triple antiplatelet therapy (n=4, 17.4%; P<0.05) and the group administered heparin postoperatively (7 patients, 13.2%; P<0.05). The effects of low on-treatment platelet reactivity, i.e., P2Y12 reaction units <95%, sheath size, hemostasis method used, and operating time were not clinically significant. Our findings suggest an increased risk of puncture site hemorrhage in patients who either had an activated clotting time ≥300 seconds before the postoperative removal of the sheath, had received triple antiplatelet therapy, or were administered heparin postoperatively.
Unenhanced CT texture analysis with machine learning for differentiating between nasopharyngeal cancer and nasopharyngeal malignant lymphoma

Hayato Tomita, Tsuneo Yamashiro, Gyo Iida, Maho Tsubakimoto, Hidefumi Mimura and Sadayuki Murayama
pg(s) 135 - 149

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Differentiating between nasopharyngeal cancer and nasopharyngeal malignant lymphoma (ML) remains challenging on cross-sectional images. The aim of this study is to investigate the usefulness of texture features on unenhanced CT for differentiating between nasopharyngeal cancer and nasopharyngeal ML. Thirty patients with nasopharyngeal tumors, including 17 nasopharyngeal cancers and 13 nasopharyngeal MLs, were underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT. All nasopharyngeal cancers and 7 of 13 nasopharyngeal MLs were confirmed by endoscopic biopsy. On unenhanced CT, 34 texture features were analyzed following lesion segmentation in the maximum area of the target lesion. The Mann-Whitney U test and areas under the curve (AUCs) were used for analysis and to compare the maximum standardized uptake values (SUV)max, SUVmean, and 34 texture features. A support vector machine (SVM) was constructed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and AUCs of combinations of texture features, with 50 repetitions of 5-fold cross-validation. Differences between the SUVmax and SUVmean for nasopharyngeal cancers and nasopharyngeal MLs were not significant. Significant differences of texture features were seen, as follows: 1 histogram feature (p = 0.038), 3 gray-level co-occurrence matrix features (p < 0.05), and 1 neighborhood gray-level different matrix feature (NGLDM) (p = 0.003). Coarseness in NGLDM provided the highest diagnostic accuracy and largest AUC of 76.7% and 0.82, respectively. SVM evaluation of the combined texture features obtained the highest accuracy of 81.3%, with an AUC of 0.80. Combined texture features can provide useful information for discriminating between nasopharyngeal cancer and nasopharyngeal ML on unenhanced CT.
Incidence of Cutibacterium acnes in open shoulder surgery

Yukihiro Kajita, Yusuke Iwahori, Yohei Harada, Ryosuke Takahashi and Masataka Deie
pg(s) 151 - 157

<Abstract> - < PDF >

In recent years, Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes ) has been reported to affect postoperative outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the detection rate and clinical features of C. acnes infection after open shoulder surgery. Fifty-nine patients (33 males and 26 females; mean age, 69.1 years) were included. Samples were collected from a skin swab at the incision site prior to skin preparation. Further samples were collected from synovial swabs at the glenohumeral joint immediately after incision and before incision closure. Samples with C. acnes -positive skin swab cultures were defined as Group A, and those with negative cultures were defined as Group N. Age, sex, presence of diabetes mellitus, operation time, presence of deep infection after surgery, and rate of positive synovial swab cultures were compared between groups. There were 27 patients in Group A (mean age 69.1±13.3 [SD], 21 males and 6 females) and 32 patients in Group N (mean age 69.1±11.0 [SD], 12 males and 20 females). No significant difference in the presence of diabetes mellitus and operation time were found between groups. From the glenohumeral joint immediately after incision, C. acnes was detected in 22.2% and 0% of patients in Group A and Group N, respectively. For the glenohumeral joint before incision closure, C. acnes was detected in 22.2% and 0% of patients in Group A and Group N, respectively, demonstrating a significantly higher rate in Group A. Our findings suggest that the route of infection following open shoulder surgery is via contamination.
The dual presence of frailty and locomotive syndrome is associated with a greater decrease in the EQ-5D-5L index

Satoshi Tanaka, Kei Ando, Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Hiroaki Nakashima, Taisuke Seki, Shinya Ishizuka, Masaaki Machino, Masayoshi Morozumi, Shunsuke Kanbara, Sadayuki Ito, Tokumi Kanemura, Naoki Ishiguro, Yukiharu Hasegawa and Shiro Imagama
pg(s) 159 - 167

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Japan’s aging society is facing an increase in the prevalence of frailty and locomotive syndrome (LS) among older adults. To evaluate the association of these age-related declines on health-related quality of life (QOL) in Japan, we investigated this relationship among Japanese middle-aged and older adults who underwent general checkups and examined whether LS or frailty has a stronger association with the Japanese version of EuroQol’s five-level EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L) index. Participants were 231 middle-aged and older Japanese adults receiving routine health checkups. The study utilized the 25-item Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale, the Japanese version of the Cardiovascular Health Study, and the Japanese version of the EQ-5D-5L. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to examine how frailty and LS are related to the EQ-5D-5L index. Patients with both frailty (p = 0.003) and LS (p < 0.001) had a significantly lower EQ-5D-5L index. After adjusting for age, gender, and body mass index, LS was significantly associated with a decrease in the EQ-5D-5L index (p < 0.001), whereas frailty had no significant association with the EQ-5D-5L index (p = 0.052). Further analysis showed no significant decrease in the EQ-5D-5L index among those with frailty but no LS, and a significant decrease among those with frailty and LS. The results suggest that frailty and LS are associated with a decrease in the EQ-5D-5L index, but LS has a more pronounced effect. In evaluating frailty’s effects on health-related QOL, we determined the importance of separately assessing frailty both with and without LS, even within the same frailty group.
Food group intakes and all-cause mortality among a young older Japanese population of the same age: the New Integrated Suburban Seniority Investigation Project

Tae Sasakabe, Kenji Wakai, Shigekazu Ukawa, Masahiko Ando, Takashi Kawamura, Satoe Okabayashi, Kazuyo Tsushita, Hideki Ohira and Akiko Tamakoshi
pg(s) 169 - 182

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Evaluating the effects of dietary intake on mortality in older populations has become increasingly important in modern aging societies. The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations between food group intakes and all-cause mortality among a young older population. We conducted a prospective study on 1,324 men and 1,338 women aged 64–65 years at baseline who were living in a suburban city from 1996 to 2005. The participants were followed for all-cause mortality from 1996 through 2015 to assess the effects of 17 food group intakes (g) per 1,000 kcal after multivariable adjustments in proportional hazard models. During follow-up (mean: 13.2 years), 339 deaths were registered. In women, total mortality was significantly and inversely associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products and vegetables. The hazard ratios across intake quartiles after multivariable adjustment were 1, 0.70 (95% confidence interval: 0.42–1.17), 0.66 (0.40–1.10), and 0.40 (0.22–0.75) (P for trend = 0.003) for milk and dairy products, and 1, 0.77 (0.46–1.28), 0.83 (0.50–1.38), and 0.42 (0.23–0.78) (P for trend = 0.008) for vegetables. In men, a positive association was found between total mortality and sugar and sweetener consumption (P for trend = 0.038). Higher consumption of milk and dairy products and vegetables was suggested to reduce all-cause mortality in young older women.
Genome-wide association study of serum prostate-specific antigen levels based on 1000 Genomes imputed data in Japanese: the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study

Asahi Hishida, Masahiro Nakatochi, Takashi Tamura, Mako Nagayoshi, Rieko Okada, Yoko Kubo, Mineko Tsukamoto, Yuka Kadomatsu, Sadao Suzuki, Takeshi Nishiyama, Nagato Kuriyama, Isao Watanabe, Toshiro Takezaki, Daisaku Nishimoto, Kiyonori Kuriki, Kokichi Arisawa, Sakurako Katsuura-Kamano, Haruo Mikami, Miho Kusakabe, Isao Oze, Yuriko N. Koyanagi, Yasuyuki Nakamura, Aya Kadota, Chisato Shimanoe, Keitaro Tanaka, Hiroaki Ikezaki, Masayuki Murata, Michiaki Kubo, Yukihide Momozawa, Kenji Takeuchi and Kenji Wakai for the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study Group
pg(s) 183 - 194

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Prostate cancer is emerging as a significant global public health burden. The incidence and prevalence of prostate cancer has increased in Japan, as westernized lifestyles become more popular. Recent advances in genetic epidemiology, including genome-wide association studies (GWASs), have identified considerable numbers of human genetic factors associated with diseases. Several GWASs have reported significant loci associated with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. One GWAS, which was based on classic GWAS microarray measurements, has been reported for Japanese so far. In the present study, we conducted a GWAS of serum PSA using 1000Genomes imputed GWAS data (n =1,216) from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study, to detect candidate novel genetic loci that influence serum PSA levels in Japanese. The association of SNPs/genetic variants with serum PSA as a continuous variable was tested using the linear Wald test. SNP rs10000006 in SGMS2 (sphingomyelin synthase 2) on chromosome 4 had genome-wide significance (P <5×10−8), and eight variants on three chromosomes (chromosomes 12, 14, 15) had genome-wide suggestive levels of significance (P <1×10−6). With an independent data set from the J-MICC Shizuoka Study (n = 2,447), the association of the SGMS2SNP with blood PSA levels was not replicated. Although our GWAS failed to detect novel loci associated with serum PSA levels in the Japanese cohort, it confirmed the significant effects of previously reported genetic loci on PSA levels in Japanese. Importantly, our results confirmed the significance of KLK3 SNPs also in Japanese, implying that consideration of individual genetic information in prostate cancer diagnosis may be possible in the future.

CASE REPORTS

A case of abdominal migration of the testes presenting with azoospermia

Hatsuki Hibi, Miho Sugie, Tadashi Ohori and Yoshimasa Asada
pg(s) 195 - 199

<Abstract> - < PDF >

31-year-old male was referred to our hospital due to azoospermia. Physical examination revealed impal-pable testes in the scrotum, and operative scar presented at lower abdominal midline. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed that small testes were located subcutaneously in the lower abdominal midline. Since luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were elevated, we diagnosed non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) due to abdominal migration of the testes. Microscopic testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) was performed, however, no sperm were recovered. Pathological diagnosis was Sertoli cell only and no malignant cells were observed. Post-operatively, subjects’ hormone levels were unchanged, and testicular tumor markers and computed tomography (CT) were normal. However, renal function gradually deteriorated and a renal transplantation from the farther was carried out eight months after micro-TESE. Attention to the possibility of carcinogenesis of the abdominal migrated testes should be maintained.
Percutaneous injection of platelet-rich plasma to treat atrophic nonunion after internal fixation of ulnar fracture: a case report

Shao-Guang Li, Yong Huang, Hai-Jia Zhu and Jie-Feng Huang
pg(s) 201 - 208

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Non-union is a serious postoperative complication of fracture. Early detection and intervention can avoid revision surgery. Platelet-rich plasma releases many active tissue factors and has potential to promote fracture healing. Percutaneous injection of platelet-rich plasma at the fracture site may avoid surgical treatment when non-union occurs. We present a case of atrophic non-union of an ulna fracture treated conservatively with percutaneous injection of platelet-rich plasma.
Imaging of endolymphatic hydrops on a vertigo attack of Meniere’s disease

Takafumi Nakada, Masaaki Teranishi, Saiko Sugiura, Yasue Uchida, Shinji Naganawa and Michihiko Sone
pg(s) 209 - 216

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Meniere’s disease (MD) characteristically presents with endolymphatic hydrops (EH), which can be visualized with gadolinium-enhanced inner ear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Inner ear membrane rupture has been suspected to cause MD attacks, but this remains controversial. We report a case of MD coincidentally evaluated the EH using 3-Tesla MRI during a vertigo attack. A 78-year-old man with bilateral definite MD visited the hospital outpatient department due to a vertigo attack. To evaluate of endolymphatic hydrops on the attack, inner ear MRI was obtained 4 hours after intravenous injection of gadolinium agent. Vestibular EH in each ear occupied almost all vestibular endolymphatic space in contact with the oval window and herniated into the horizontal semi-circular canal. The endolymphatic space was enlarged, without collapse or mixture of contrast agent. No difference was found between ears. EH on a vertigo attack was associated with significant swelling, without obvious evidence of membranous ruptures on magnetic resonance images.

MEDICAL IMAGE AT A GLANCE

Bone fragility of a school child during COVID-19

Yoshihiro Nishida and Kunihiro Ikuta
pg(s) 217 - 218

<Abstract> - < PDF >