VOLUME 80 NUMBER 1 February 2018

Current Issue

ISSN 2186-3326
(Online ISSN)
ISSN 0027-7622
(Print ISSN--v.72no.3/4)


Editors' Choice
Surgical outcomes of decompressive laminoplasty with spinous process osteotomy to treat lumbar spinal stenosis

Shunsuke Kanbara, Testuya Urasaki, Hiroyuki Tomita, Kei Ando, Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Akiyuki Matsumoto, Masayoshi Morozumi, Satoshi Tanaka, Kyotaro Ota, Masaaki Machino, Sadayuki Ito, Yoshihiro Nishida, Naoki Ishiguro, and Shiro Imagama
pg(s) 1 - 9

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Decompressive laminoplasty with spinous process osteotomy (LSPO) was developed as a less invasive procedure for lumbar decompression by Weiner et al. There are few reports extensively highlighting the surgical outcomes of LSPO. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical outcomes of LSPO for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). In total, 23 patients with LSS were studied. All patients were followed up for more than 2 years. The Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores, the recovery rate (RR) of JOA scores, Visual analog scale (VAS) scores, responses to the JOA Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire (JOABPEQ), sagittal alignment and segmental motion following LSPO were assessed preoperatively and 2 years postoperatively. Postoperative paravertebral muscle atrophy and bone union rates between the spinous process and the residual laminae were assessed. Preoperative and 2-year postoperative JOA scores were 13.0 points and 24.7 points, respectively (p<0.001). With respect to JOABPEQ, significant improvements were observed in pain-related disorders (p<0.05), walking ability (p<0.01), social life function (p<0.05), and mental health (p<0.05) dimensions. There were no significant differences between preoperative and 2-year postoperative sagittal alignment and range of motion. The degree of the paravertebral muscle atrophy at 2 years postoperatively was 23.0 % at spread side and 9.6 % at nonspread side (p<0.01). The fusion rate of the spinous process with the arcus vertebrae was 87%. This result reveals that LSPO could acquire the reconstruction of posterior supporting structures. We demonstrated that LSPO could be a one of the surgical options for LSS.
Estimated costs for treatment and prophylaxis of newborn vitamin K deficiency bleeding in Tashkent, Uzbekistan

Doniyorjon Tursunov, Yoshitoku Yoshida, Keneshbek Yrysov, Dilmurad Sabirov, Khilola Alimova, Eiko Yamamoto, Joshua A. Reyer, and Nobuyuki Hamajima
pg(s) 11 - 20

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) is a preventable cause of infant mortality and long-term morbidity through the world. This study aimed to demonstrate the costs of VKDB treatment estimated from the hospital records in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, as well as the prophylaxis costs for mass vitamin K medication. Subjects were 50 patients with no operation and 50 patients who had received a brain operation, consecutively enrolled from 180 cases diagnosed at Republican Research Center of Emergency Medicine in 2014. In that year, an additional 22 VKDB patients were found in Tashkent; the incidence of VKDB was 478/100,000 among 42,225 newborns. The prophylaxis costs for all newborns in Tashkent were estimated under a plausible condition. The average age at admission was 43.2 days among 100 patients (67 boys and 33 girls) with birth weight from 2,600 g to 3,800 g (3,105 g on average). The great majority of patients (92.0%) were breastfed; 89.5% in boys and 97.0% in girls. Average treatment cost per VKDB patient was 365 USD for the operated and 285 USD for the non-operated. Total expenses of the 202 patients were estimated to be 64,603 USD. A single prophylaxis was estimated to cost 1.24 USD, totaling 52,359 USD for the prophylaxis of 42,225 newborns. Since the reduction of VKDB incidence through prophylaxis is considered to be higher than 78.5% (52,359/64,603), provision of prophylaxis services would reduce the total costs of VKDB treatment in Uzbekistan, where prophylaxis is not provided.
Obesity does not affect peri- and postoperative outcomes of transabdominal laparoscopic adrenalectomy

Takahiro Inaishi, Toyone Kikumori, Dai Takeuchi, Hiromasa Ishihara, Noriyuki Miyajima, Masahiro Shibata, Yuko Takano, Kenichi Nakanishi, Sumiyo Noda, and Yasuhiro Kodera
pg(s) 21 - 28

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is the gold standard procedure for most adrenal tumors. Obesity is considered as a risk factor for surgical complications. This study aimed to evaluate whether obesity affects peri- and postoperative outcomes of transabdominal laparoscopic adrenalectomy using body mass index (BMI). This retrospective study included 98 patients who underwent transabdominal laparoscopic adrenalectomy between January 2011 and December 2016. We divided the patients into 2 groups: non-obese group (BMI < 25 kg/m2) and obese group (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). We assessed perioperative outcomes and postoperative complications between the groups. A total of 98 patients were analyzed (70 without obesity and 28 with obesity). There were no significant differences between the non-obese and obese groups regarding operative time (111 vs 107 min; p = 0.795), blood loss (3.5 vs 3.5 ml; p = 0.740), rate of placement of additional trocars (14.3% vs 17.9%; p = 0.657), rate of open conversion (2.6% vs 3.6%; p = 0.853), and postoperative length of hospital stay (6 vs 5 days; p = 0.237). Furthermore, obesity was not a significant risk factor for postoperative complications (postoperative bleeding, wound infection, and pneumonia). There are no significant differences in peri- and postoperative outcomes of transabdominal laparoscopic adrenalectomy in patients with obesity compared with those without obesity. Transabdominal laparoscopic adrenalectomy is feasible and safe for patients with obesity.
Association between the perspective of adult inpatients with digestive cancer regarding the nursing service and their quality of recovery on postoperative day 3

Kumiko Sasaki and Koji Tamakoshi
pg(s) 29 - 37

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Although qualitative research that focuses on inpatients’ experience immediately after surgery has continued to elucidate the efficacy of the nursing service for postoperative recovery, there has been little quantitative research. Our aim was to quantitatively clarify the association between inpatients’ perception of the nursing service and the quality of postoperative recovery. Seventy-one digestive cancer patients who underwent surgery were recruited. Participants completed two self-administered questionnaires, including the Japanese version of the 40-item postoperative Quality of Recovery scale (QoR-40J) and the Nursing Service Quality Scale for Japan (NURSERV-J) which has 22 items and five dimensions (tangibles, reli- ability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy) on postoperative day 3. There were significant positive associations between the global scores of the NURSERV-J and the QoR-40J. The global score of the QoR-40J was compared between patients who gave full marks for each dimension of the NURSERV-J (the entirely satisfied group) and those who did not (the not entirely satisfied group). The entirely satisfied groups regarding tangibles, reliability and responsiveness had a significantly higher global score for the QoR-40J than the respective not entirely satisfied groups. Adjusted for age, gender, operative procedure, and duration of surgery, the entirely satisfied groups regarding tangibles and responsiveness had a signifi- cant higher global score for the QoR-40J than the respective not entirely satisfied groups. Patients who perceived that they had received a nursing service of high quality were likely to attain a high quality of postoperative recovery. Nursing services related to tangibles, reliability, and responsiveness especially contributed to postoperative recovery.
Intra-articular platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections for treating knee pain associated with osteoarthritis of the knee in the Japanese population: a phase I and IIa clinical trial

u Taniguchi, Tomokazu Yoshioka, Akihiro Kanamori, Katsuya Aoto, Hisashi Sugaya, and Masashi Yamazaki
pg(s) 39 - 51

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Intra-articular platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection has been found to be effective for treating os- teoarthritis in patients from Western countries; however, the safety and efficacy of PRP have not been sufficiently investigated in Japanese patients. The present study aimed to evaluate the safety and feasibility of intra-articular PRP injection in Japanese patients with knee osteoarthritis. PRP without white blood cells was prepared using a single-spin centrifuge (PRGF-Endoret; BTI Biotechnology Institute, Vitoria, Spain). A 6-mL PRP volume was injected in the knee joint three times at 1 week intervals. All patients were prospectively evaluated before intervention and at 1, 3, and 6 months after the treatment. Adverse events, the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain score, Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM) score and Japanese Orthopedic Association score were evaluated. Ten patients (all women; average age, 60.6 years) were treated. Only minor adverse events after injection were noted, and symptoms resolved within 48 hours after the injection. The average VAS pain scores were 71.6 mm and 18.4 mm at baseline and the 6-month follow-up, respectively (P < 0.05). At the 6-month follow-up, 80% of patients had a decrease in the VAS pain score of 50% or more. The average JKOM scores were 35.2 and 14.3 at baseline and at the 1-month follow-up, respectively (P < 0.05). Intra-articular PRP injection likely represents a safe treatment option for Japanese patients with mild-to-moderate knee osteoarthritis, and has the potential to relieve pain for up to 6 months, but further study is needed to verify the efficacy.
Effect of spinal tap test on the performance of sit-to-stand, walking, and turning in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

Sunee Bovonsunthonchai, Theerapol Witthiwej, Chanon Ngamsombat, Sith Sathornsumetee, Roongtiwa Vachalathiti, Weerasak Muangpaisan, Pichaya Hengsomboon, Suthasinee Thong-On, Supattra Jankhum, and Pusanisa Yangyoo
pg(s) 53 - 60

<Abstract> - < PDF >

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the spinal tap test on sit-to-stand (STS), walking, and turning and to determine the relationship among the outcome measures of STS, walking, and turning in patients with iNPH. Twenty-seven patients with clinical symptoms of iNPH were objectively examined for STS, walking, and turning by the Force Distribution Measurement (FDM) platform connected with a video camera. Assessments were performed at before and 24 hours after spinal tap. Motor abilities were assessed by the STS time, time of walking over 3 meters, and time and number of steps when turning over 180 degrees. Significant improvements were found in the STS time (p = 0.046), walking time (p = 0.048), and turning step (p = 0.001). In addition, turning time was improved but not statistically significant (p = 0.064). Significant relationships were found among all outcome measures (p < 0.001). The relationship among these outcome measures indicated that the individuals had similar ability levels to perform different activities. This may serve as a new choice of outcome measures to evaluate the effect of intervention in different severity levels of patients with iNPH.
Factors related to sense of coherence in adult patients with Type 2 diabetes

Yuki Odajima and Naomi Sumi
pg(s) 61 - 71

<Abstract> - < PDF >

The influence of a diabetic person’s sense of burden and blood sugar control through sense of coherence (SOC) on self-management has yet to be sufficiently clarified. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of salutogenesis, which has sense of coherence at its core, for the self-management of patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 258 questionnaires were distributed to patients who were seen at one of three hospitals in an urban area in Japan, after obtaining consent from the patient. They were between 20 and 75 years old and regularly received care. Of the 185 responses, 177 were valid. The responses were analyzed by referring to the framework of salutogenesis, and the relationship between patient characteristics, SOC, the Problem Areas In Diabetes survey (PAID), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were studied with structural equation modeling (SEM). SOC had a main effect on PAID scores and an indirect effect on HbA1c. Moreover, age influenced SOC positively. The SOC of patients with type 2 diabetes in the present study was comparatively high. These observations suggest a direct effect of SOC on reducing the sense of burden from having diabetes and an indirect effect on decreasing HbA1c. This research suggested the possibility that diabetes can be controlled by improving SOC.
Medical clerks in a national university hospital: improving the quality of medical care with a focus on spinal surgery

Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Kei Ando, Makiko Noda, Naoki Ishiguro, and Shiro Imagama
pg(s) 73 - 78

<Abstract> - < PDF >

In our institution, which is a national university hospital, medical clerks were introduced in 2009 to im- prove the doctor’s working environment. Seventeen clerks were assigned to 9 separate departments and the work content differed greatly among departments, but sufficient professional work was not done efficiently. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the work of medical clerks on improvement of medical quality in recent years. In 2011, we established a central clerk desk on our outpatient floor to improve efficiency and centralize the clerk work. Since 2013, periodic education of clerks on spine disease has been provided by spine doctors, and this has facilitated sharing of information on spinal surgery from diagnosis to surgical treatment. This has allowed medical clerks to ask patients questions, leading to more efficient medical treatment and a potential reduction of doctors’ work. In 2016, a revision of the insurance system by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan increased the amount of medical work that clerks can perform, and it became possible to increase the number of medical clerks. Currently, we have 30 medical clerks, and this has allowed establishment of new clerk desks in other departments to handle patients. A training curriculum will be developed to reduce the burden on doctors further and to improve the quality of medical treatment.
National survey of international electives for global health in undergraduate medical education in Japan, 2011–2014

Tomio Suzuki and Hiroshi Nishigori
pg(s) 79 - 90

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Interest in global health in medical education is increasing in Western countries, whereas data from non-Western countries is scarce. Here, we conducted a nationwide study of international clinical electives at Japanese medical schools from 2011 to 2013. We constructed a 28-item cross-sectional survey in Japanese to investigate the rate and characteristics of both Japanese students going abroad and international students coming on exchange to Japan. The surveys were sent to the administrative offices of all 80 Japanese medical schools in each of the three years, through the Japan Medical Education Foundation. All 80 medical schools responded to the questionnaire (response rate, 100%). An average of 70 of the 80 medical universities provided exchange programs across the three years to allow students to travel abroad as part of the school curriculum and obtain academic credit. The schools provided support in the form of in- and outside-class preparatory programs, tuition fee exemptions and housing. The most popular destinations for Japanese students going abroad were Europe and North America, which may reflect the desire of Japanese students to acquire medical knowledge or experience through exposure to the English language. In contrast, the most common countries of origin of international exchange students coming to Japan were Asian countries such as South Korea, Thailand and Taiwan, with pediatrics being the most popular elective. Foreign exchange programs are becoming increasingly incorporated into the Japanese medical education curriculum and can help to strengthen international partnerships and collaborations.
Editors' Choice
Maxillary sinus carcinoma outcomes over 60 years: experience at a single institution

Naoki Nishio, Yasushi Fujimoto, Mariko Hiramatsu, Takashi Maruo, Hidenori Tsuzuki, Nobuaki Mukoyama, Mariko Shimono, Michihiko Sone, Yoshitaka Kawabe, Kiyoshi Saito, Masazumi Fujii, and Tsutomu Nakashima
pg(s) 91 - 98

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with maxillary sinus carcinoma have improved patient prognosis. This study investigated changes in demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment methods, and outcomes of patients with maxillary sinus carcinomas during three different 10-year periods spanning 60 years at our university hospital. Of the 233 patients with maxillary sinus carcinomas managed at Nagoya University Hospital, 135 were treated between 1951 and 1960 (first period), 35 between 1981 and 1990 (second period), and 63 between 2003 and 2012 (third period). Patient age, sex, TN classifications, treatment methods, and survival rates were compared among patients treated during these time periods. Of the 135, 35, and 63 patients with maxillary sinus carcinomas treated during these time periods, 86 (63.7%), 21 (51.4%), and 48 (76.2%), respectively, were men; 14 (10.4%), six (17.1%), and 14 (22.2%), respectively, were aged ≥70 years; and 135 (100%), 28 (80.0%), and 43 (68.3%), respectively, were treated surgically. The 5-year overall survival rates in patients treated during the first, second, and third periods were 29.7%, 44.3%, and 57.5%, respectively. These findings indicated that advances in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with maxillary sinus carcinoma, including computed tomography and craniofacial resection, have contributed to improvements in patient survival rates.
Identifying the social capital influencing diabetes control in Japan

Yohei Yamada, Mina Suematsu, Noriyuki Takahashi, Kentaro Okazaki, Hiroki Yasui, Takeshi Hida, Kazumasa Uemura, Kenta Murotani, and Masafumi Kuzuya
pg(s) 99 - 107

<Abstract> - < PDF >

The number of patients with diabetes is increasing in Japan. Recently, Social capital (SC) has received increasing attention as a factor influencing health conditions. In the US, the relation between SC and diabetes control has been reported, but little attention has been paid to this connection in Japan. Three SC questionnaires, entitled “trust in people in a community,” “social support,” and “social relationships,” were constructed. The subjects were adult patients with type 2 diabetes. Information on diabetic conditions, such as HbA1c, self-attainment of diet (SAD) and exercise (SAE), and complications were collected. The reliability coefficients for the SC questionnaire and factor analysis of SC were conducted. Multiple and logistic regressions were used to identify the influence of SC on diabetes control. Sixty-five patients participated in this study. The questionnaires “social support” and “social relationships” were adopted to measure Cronbach alpha coefficient. Factor analysis extracted the factors “hope to be helped (HH),” “participation in favorite events (PFE),” “sense of belonging (SB),” and “social movement (SM).” HbA1c was positively correlated with HH (P < 0.05). SAD and SAE were negatively correlated with HH (P < 0.05). SAE was positively correlated with PFE (P < 0.05). PFE reduced complication risks (P < 0.05). HH includes amae, which negatively affected self-efficacy that correlates with diabetes control. Therefore, higher HH might cause higher levels of HbA1c. PFE reduces distress and contributes to glucose control. Reduced distress through PFE might prevent complications. HH and PFE were identified as SC that influences diabetes control.
Genome-wide association study for pollinosis identified two novel loci in interleukin (IL)-1B in a Japanese population

Ryosuke Fujii, Asahi Hishida, Michael C. Wu, Takaaki Kondo, Yuta Hattori, Mariko Naito, Kaori Endoh, Masahiro Nakatochi, Nobuyuki Hamajima, Michiaki Kubo, Kiyonori Kuriki, and Kenji Wakai
pg(s) 109 - 120

<Abstract> - < PDF >

The number of pollinosis patients in Japan has significantly increased over the past 20 years. The majority of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on pollinosis have been conducted in subjects of European descent, with few studies in Japanese populations. The aim of our GWAS was to identify genetic loci associated with self-reported pollinosis in a Japanese population and to understand its molecular background using a combination of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and gene- and pathway-based analyses. A total of 731 and 560 individuals who were recruited as participants of the Japan Multi- Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study participated in the discovery and replication phases, respectively. The phenotype of pollinosis was based on the information from a self-administered questionnaire. In the single-SNP analysis, four SNPs (rs11975199, rs11979076, rs11979422, and rs12669708) reached suggestive significance level (P < 1 × 10−4) and had effects in the same direction in both phases of the study. The pathway-based analysis identified two suggestive pathways (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain -like receptor and tumor necrosis factor signaling pathways). Both rs1143633 and rs3917368 in the interleukin-1B gene showed associations in the retrace (from pathway to gene and SNP) analysis. We performed single-SNP, gene, and pathway analysis and shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying pollinosis in a Japanese population.
Clinical significance of gastrointestinal patency evaluation by using patency capsule in Crohn’s disease

Toru Yoshimura, Yoshiki Hirooka, Masanao Nakamura, Osamu Watanabe, Takeshi Yamamura, Masanobu Matsushita, Takuya Ishikawa, Kazuhiro Furukawa, Kohei Funasaka, Eizaburo Ohno, Hiroki Kawashima, Ryoji Miyahara, and Hidemi Goto
pg(s) 121 - 128

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Capsule endoscopy (CE) enables noninvasive visualization of the small bowel in Crohn’s disease (CD), but should not be conducted in patients with bowel obstruction. Patency capsule (PC) can be ingested before conducting the CE examination to ensure patency of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of GI patency which the PC demonstrated. A retrospective review of the medical records was conducted with 99 consecutive patients with CD who underwent PC and CE at Nagoya University Hospital from January 2010 to May 2015. By using the Cox proportional hazards model, the association between the GI patency evaluated using the PC and the outcome in terms of the rate of patients who needed admission or surgery during the 2-year follow-up was examined. Of all 99 patients who ingested the PC, 84 (84.8%) were diagnosed as not having bowel obstruction, and therefore were eligible for CE (P group). Of the 15 patients in whom bowel obstruction was suspected (NP group), 12 patients underwent either the balloon-assisted endoscopy (n=10) or enteroclysis (n=2), and 11 were confirmed to have small bowel stricture. Non-admission rates of the P and NP groups during the 2-year observation period were 74/84 (88.0%) and 8/15 (53.3%), respectively (P<0.001). Non-operation rates of the P and NP groups during the 2-year observation period were 80/84 (95.2%) and 9/15 (60.0%), respectively (P<0.001). In conclusion, GI patency as diagnosed using the PC was associated with a significantly lower incidence of admission or surgical intervention.


Bevacizumab-induced tracheoesophageal fistula in a patient suffering from lung cancer with bulky subcarinal lymph node: a case report

Kenichi Nishie, Masanori Yasuo, Yoshiaki Kitaguchi, Nobumitsu Kobayashi, Kazunari Tateishi, Atsuhito Ushiki, Kazuhisa Urushihata, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Gen Ideura, and Masayuki Hanaoka
pg(s) 129 - 134

<Abstract> - < PDF >

A 66-year-old male with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who was previously treated with carboplatin, pemetrexed, and bevacizumab consequently suffered from severe coughing during degluti- tion. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed a tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) between the left main bronchus and esophagus through a subcarinal metastatic lymph node. Given the extreme swelling of the lymph node due to metastatic cancer, it was determined that the walls of the bronchus and esophagus had been injured simultaneously. Delayed and dysfunctional wound healing due to bevacizumab resulted in necrosis of the contact region leading to fistula formation. This case suggests that using bevacizumab for NSCLC in patients with bulky subcarinal lymphadenopathy may increase the risk for TEF.
A case of local recurrence of T1 rectal cancer 10 years after transanal excision

Hideharu Tanaka, Koji Komori, Takashi Kinoshita, Taihei Oshiro, Seiji Ito, Tetsuya Abe, Yoshiki Senda, Kazunari Misawa, Yuichi Ito, Norihisa Uemura, Seiji Natsume, Eiji Higaki, Akira Ouchi, Masayuki Tsutsuyama, Takahiro Hosoi, Itaru Shigeyoshi, Byonggu An, Tomoyuki Akazawa, Daisuke Hayashi, Tairin Uchino, Aina Kunitomo, and Yasuhiro Shimizu
pg(s) 135 - 140

<Abstract> - < PDF >

We report a case of a patient with T1 rectal cancer, which recurred locally after 10 years from the primary operation. A 78-year-old woman was diagnosed with rectal cancer. Transanal excision (TAE) was performed in December 2006. The pathological findings revealed stage I rectal cancer [tub2>muc, pSM (2,510 μm), ly0, v0, pHM0, pVM0]. Because she did not opt for additional treatment, she received follow- up examination. After approximately 10 years from the primary operation, she presented to her physician, complaining of melena, and she was referred to our hospital again in November 2016. She was diagnosed with recurrent rectal cancer. Laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection was performed in December 2016. Pathological findings revealed stage IIIB rectal cancer (tub2>muc, pA, pN1). The reported postoperative local recurrence rate for T1 rectal cancer after TAE is high, but local recurrence after years from the primary operation is rare. In high-risk cases, local recurrence may be observed even after 10 years from the primary operation. Long-term and close postoperative follow-up is important to detect local recurrence early.