VOLUME 34 NUMBER 1 June 1971

Current Issue

ISSN 2186-3326
(Online ISSN)
ISSN 0027-7622
(Print ISSN--v.72no.3/4)

Study on Tyrosine: 2-Oxoglutarate Aminotransferase Activity in the Liver of Tumor-Bearing and Injured Mice

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<Abstract> - < PDF >

Elevation of the liver tyrosine: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (EC 2. 6. 1. 5.) activity was observed in Ehrlich ascites tumor bearing mice and also in mice with nonspecific stimuli, such as talcum injection and high protein diet feeding. Regarding the intracellular distribution of the enzyme activity, a higher percentage was demonstrated in the supernatant fraction of mice with acute nonspecific stimuli than in that of the control mice but not in that of mice with tumor. In case of chronic nonspecific stimuli such as repeated talcum injections or feeding on high protein diet for a long term, however the intracellular distribution of enzyme activity resembled that of the control mice. These changes in enzyme activity and its intracellular distribution were found to be closely related to the adrenal steroid hormone.
A Study on the Clinical Significance of Serum and Urinary Muramidase Activity in Leukemics

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<Abstract> - < PDF >

A study was made on serum and urinary muramidase in 56 patients with leukemia and other hematologic disorders. Serum and urinary muramidase levels prior to antileukemic therapy were elevated in monocytic leukemia, while not so increased in paramyeloblastic leukemia. In all patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia pretreatment serum enzyme activities were decreased below normal, whereas those in patients with acute myelocytic leukemia were normal or slightly increased. In other hematologic diseases the mean values of serum muramidase levels before treatment were elevated slightly or moderately. Extreme urinary muramidase excretion was found in untreated patients with monocytic leukemia in contrast to none or little amount in the other groups. The serum and urinary muramidase levels changed in close correlation with peripheral leukocyte counts, bone marrow contents and clinical status in patients with monocytic leukemia. When antileukemic therapy was effective, serum and urinary muramidase levels fell toward the normal as leukemic cell counts decreased. During complete remission serum enzyme levels remained within normal range and muramidasuria was never found. Following relapse muramidase levels began to rise. Serum and urinary enzyme activities increased in a patient with monocytic leukemia in whom only a few blastic cells were found in peripheral blood and bone marrow. On the basis of the present results, diagnostic value of serum and urinary muramidase activity and the relationship between the clinical status and the enzyme activity in leukemia, especially in monocytic leukemia, were discussed.
Fine Structure of Adrenocortical Cell in Cushings's Syndrome

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<Abstract> - < PDF >

Adrenocortical tumors or adrenal glands, obtained from cases of Cushing's syndrome consisting of two cases of adrenocortical cancer, three of adrenocortical adenoma, five of adrenocortical hyperplasia and two of adrenocortical nodular hyperplasia were studied by electron microscopy and compared with normal glands. Nodular hyperplasia was differentiated from simple hyperplasia by the unique clinical and fine structural features. The fine structure of adrenocortical cancer cells, which has not been reported up to the present, revealed well developed microvilli and Golgi complex, circular cristae and intramitochondrial body and two kinds of unidentified microbodies in the cytoplasma. Mitochondria of adenoma cells exhibited various sizes and round or oval shape displaying tubulo-vesicular cristae. Smooth surfaced endoplasmic reticulum (s.E.R.) was relatively well developed in many cases of Cushing's syndrome. Rough surfaced endoplasmic reticulum (r.E.R.) was well developed in the case of adenoma, especially in an infant case. Normal lipid droplets were sparse in cases of adenoma and nodular hyperplasia, but small round and homogenous dense bodies were observed in these two groups, especially abundantly in the latter. The fine structure of simple adrenocortical hyperplasia was almost similar to normal adrenal cortex except for the existence of many intramitochondrial bodies. The fine structural characteristics of adrenocortical tumor or adrenal cortex in Cushing's syndrome were a well developed s.E.R., variety in the size of mitochondria, various cristae of mitochondria and prominent Golgi complex.
An Experimental Study of Inverting Intestinal Anastomoses

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<Abstract> - < PDF >

There remains still many arguments over the best method of intestinal anastomosis which can be used for newborn as well as adult despite many efforts and studies made since the beginning of the 19th century.
The method of anastomosis which can be used for adult intestine of relatively large caliber is not always applicable to the intestine of small children, especially of the newborn, without complications, such as stenosis and obstruction due to inverted cuff, edema or kinking at the site of anastomosis.
An experimental study was performed on dogs in order to find an ideal intestinal anastomosis which can be performed on patients of pediatric age.
Comparative studies of three different methods of inverting intestinal anastomosis; Standard anastomosis1) (double-layer inverting anastomosis, or Lembert-Albert anastomosis), Halsted anastomosis 2) (single-layer inverting anastomosis), and Czerny anastomosis3l (single-layer serosa-submucosa inverting anastomosis) were made from the standpoint of complications which are often encountered in association with operation.
Seventy-nine anastomoses were constructed in 36 dogs and were compared from the standpoints of adhesions and obstruction at the site of anastomosis either due to inverted cuff or due to kinking. Every specimen of intestinal anastomosis was examined histologically.
The results indicated that Czerny anastomosis seems to be superior to other anastomoses from these standpoints, and suggest that Czerny anastomosis would be an excellent method, useful clinically in both adult and newborn.
Vital Reaction as Enzymatic Response to Injury
- With Regard to Distinction between Antemortem and Postmortem Skin Wounds by Histochemical Methods -

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<Abstract> - < PDF >

In order to discover early vital reactions the authors investigated the changes in the activity of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase and esterase in antemortem and postmortem skin wounds.
Dermal connective tissues adjacent to the wound edge showed a decrease in the activity of the three enzymes from 2 hours after vital wounding. Surrounding the decreased zone, along the wound edge, the activity of the three enzymes increased simultaneously in local fibroblasts from 2 hours and in immigrating leucocytes from 4 hours after vital wounding. The authors consider that these phenomena belong to the intravital reactions, since there were no such changes in postmortem wounds.
Epidermis and hair follicles in the vicinity of the wound edge revealed an increased esterase activity as early as 30 minutes after vital wounding. Such a phenomenon was also seen even in postmortem skin wounds which were inflicted within 2 hours after death and preserved for a certain time interval. On alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, increased reactions in the epidermis and hair follicles could not be observed. It seems that this increase in esterase activity corresponds to the intermediate reactions.
Accordingly, whether a wound is of vital origin or not, might not be decided solely by the earlier increase in esterase activity. Further, because of the simultaneous activation of the three enzymes, the estimation of the age of wounds should be based rather on the intensity and localization of the enzyme activities.
A Study on Hormone Dependency of Breast Cancer

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<Abstract> - < PDF >

Sex hormone dependency of breast cancer was studied in vitro by examining 3H-thymidine uptake into DNA of breast cancer cells. DMBA induced breast cancer of rats, Shionogi carcinoma 115 and Shionogi carcinoma 42 of mice were studied preliminarily. These 3 kinds of rodent breast cancer showed the same sensitivity to both sex hormones in vitro as has been shown biologically. Sub- sequently, this sensitivity test was applied to human breast cancer. The results were not so simple as in rodent breast cancer, but rather complicated. Human breast cancers were classified into estrogen dependent group, estrogen independent group and estrogen suppressive group, according to their sensitivity to estradiol-17β. Human cases in postmenopause were distributed equally into the 3 groups, however, many cases in premenopause belonged to the estradiol dependent group. The human cases were also classified into the 3 groups according to sensitivity to testosterone although not so definite. Hormonal treatments according to the sensitivity test were effective in all clinical cases.