VOLUME 82 NUMBER 2 May 2020

Current Issue

ISSN 2186-3326
(Online ISSN)
ISSN 0027-7622
(Print ISSN--v.72no.3/4)


Editors' Choice
How to improve outcomes of elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia: era of excitement

Tomoki Naoe
pg(s) 151 - 160

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Among elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), especially those who are unfit for intensive chemotherapy, a policy of reduced-intensity chemotherapy or conservative observation has been chosen, resulting in unmet medical needs. Clinical trials using anticancer drugs including antimetabolites or drugs targeted to cell cycle-related molecules failed to show superiority over conventional treatments. Recently, drugs targeted to Bcl-2, SMO, FLT3, and IDH1/2 have been shown to prolong overall survival alone or in combination with reduced-intensity chemotherapy. These treatments are likely to reshape the therapeutic landscape of AML, which will be personalized for individual patients based on leukemia genetics.
Current trends in thoracic surgery

Toyofumi F. Chen-Yoshikawa, Takayuki Fukui, Shota Nakamura, Toshinari Ito, Yuka Kadomatsu, Hideki Tsubouchi, Harushi Ueno, Tomoshi Sugiyama, Masaki Goto, Shunsuke Mori, Naoki Ozeki, Shuhei Hakiri, and Koji Kawaguchi
pg(s) 161 - 173

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Thoracic surgery has evolved drastically in recent years. Although thoracic surgeons mainly deal with tumorous lesion in the lungs, mediastinum, and pleura, they also perform lung transplantation surgery in patients with end-stage lung disease. Herein, we introduce various major current topics in thoracic surgery. Minimally invasive surgical procedures include robot-assisted thoracic surgery and uniportal video-assisted thoracic surgery. Novel techniques for sublobar resection include virtual-assisted lung mapping, image-guided video-assisted thoracic surgery, and segmentectomy using indocyanine green. Three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) simulation consists of surgeon-friendly 3D-CT image analysis systems and new-generation, dynamic 3D-CT imaging systems. Updates in cadaveric lung transplantation include use of marginal donors, including donation after circulatory death, and ex vivo lung perfusion for such donors. Topics in living donor lobar lung transplantation include size matching, donor issues, and new surgical techniques. During routine clinical practice, thoracic surgeons encounter various pivotal topics related to thoracic surgery, which are described in this report.
Nonexposed wall-inversion surgery as a novel local resection method for neoplasms in the gastrointestinal tract

Mitsuhiro Fujishiro, Kazuhiro Furukawa, Takeshi Yamamura, Masanao Nakamura, Takashi Honda, Osamu Maeda, Masatoshi Ishigami, and Hiroki Kawashima
pg(s) 175 - 182

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Nonexposed wall-inversion surgery was invented for the treatment of node-negative gastrointestinal tumors that are difficult to be resected using the endoluminal approach alone. The advantages of this surgery include 1. full-thickness resection procedure of gastrointestinal wall with minimum necessary tumor-negative margins and 2. less risk of bacterial contamination and tumor seeding into the abdominal cavity. We conducted a PubMed search to select relevant articles published until the end of October 2019 for pooled case analyses using the keyword “nonexposed wall-inversion surgery,” Based on our search, we enrolled the data of 88 gastric lesions and 1 duodenal lesion retrieved from 7 case report articles and 4 original articles of clinical cases. The gastric lesions consisted of 59 gastrointestinal stromal tumors, 7 ectopic pancreases, 5 leiomyomas, 3 early gastric cancers, and 14 others, with a mean maximal tumor diameter of 25.0 mm. In 5 lesions (5.7%), intraoperative perforation was performed, and 2 lesions (2.3%) were retrieved by the transabdominal route. All 4 major postoperative complications (4.5%) were managed without resurgical interventions. The duodenal case, neuroendocrine tumor, measuring 13 mm in size, was curatively resected without complications. Nonexposed wall-inversion surgery appears to be an acceptable treatment for node-negative gastric and duodenal tumors; however, further accumulation of cases is necessary to confirm the feasibility.


The management of hydatidiform mole using prophylactic chemotherapy and hysterectomy for high-risk patients decreased the incidence of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia in Vietnam: a retrospective observational study

Eiko Yamamoto, Tien Dat Trinh, Yoko Sekiya, Koji Tamakoshi, Xuan Phuoc Nguyen, Kimihiro Nishino, Kaoru Niimi, Tomomi Kotani, Hiroaki Kajiyama, Kiyosumi Shibata, Quang Thanh Le, and Fumitaka Kikkawa
pg(s) 183 - 191

<Abstract> - < PDF >

The management of hydatidiform mole (HM) and the incidence of post-molar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) in Vietnam has not been reported to date. This study aimed to study the incidence of HM and post-molar GTN and identify factors associated with post-molar GTN at a tertiary hospital in Vietnam. Five hundred and eighty-four patients who were treated for HM at Tu Du Hospital between January and December 2010 were included in this study. The mean age and gestational age at the first evacuation were 28.8 years old and 11.0 weeks, respectively. After the initial evacuation and pathological examination, 87 patients who were older than 40 or did not wish to have children underwent a hysterectomy, while the others underwent second curettage. All 472 patients who had human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) ≥ 100,000 IU/L before treatment received one cycle of methotrexate with folinic acid as prophylactic chemotherapy. The incidence of HM was 11.1 per 1,000 deliveries; 47 patients (8.0%) developed post-molar GTN. Gestational week, hCG level at one week after the first evacuation, and pathological remnants were significantly associated with the development of post-molar GTN. The results of this study suggest that prophylactic chemotherapy and hysterectomy may be useful for high-risk HM patients to reduce post-molar GTN in settings in which the risk of post-molar GTN and loss to follow-up after HM are greater and hCG measurements and appropriate GTN treatments are unavailable. However, future studies on the long-term outcomes and side effects of prophylactic therapies on HM are required.
The ethics of blood transfusion refusal in clinical practice among legal and medical professions in Japan

Yoshihiko Iijima
pg(s) 193 - 204

<Abstract> - < PDF >

We investigated the differences in Japanese and United States medical and legal professional opinions on ethical support for clinical ethical issues using the refusal of blood transfusions on the grounds of religious principles as an example of a clinical ethical issue. In ethical support systems for medical institutions in Japan, 95.0% of “clinical training designation hospitals” have hospital ethics committees, and 63.1% have medical safety divisions; clinical ethical support is provided in accordance with their scale and function. In terms of clinical ethical support limits the discretion of physicians, 59.2% of lawyers responded “No” and 54.4% of doctors responded “Yes”. In addition, on the feasibility of government or academic guidelines in clinical practice, 37.7% of lawyers responded “Yes” and 63.0% of doctors responded “No”. In terms of “relative transfusion-free” policy, 83.2% of lawyers and 76.8% of doctors responded that it is “unavoidable,” while 81.6% of U.S. committee heads responded that it is a “violation of rights.” In terms of hospital transfers due to a hospital being unable to treat patients refusing blood transfusion, 62.6% of lawyers reported that it is “unavoidable” while 57.1% of U.S. committee heads reported that it “should be avoided”. The results of this study indicate that medical and legal professionals and U.S. ethics committee heads recognize clinical ethical issues in slightly different ways.
Unexpected radioactive iodine accumulation on whole-body scan after I-131 ablation therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer

Shingo Iwano, Shinji Ito, Shinichiro Kamiya, Rintaro Ito, Katsuhiko Kato, and Shinji Naganawa
pg(s) 205 - 215

<Abstract> - < PDF >

We retrospectively evaluated the frequency of unexpected accumulation of radioactive iodine on the post-therapy whole-body scan (Rx-WBS) after radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). We searched our institutional database for Rx-WBSs of DTC patients who underwent RAI ablation or adjuvant therapy between 2012 and 2019. Patients with distant metastasis diagnosed by CT or PET/CT before therapy, and those had previously received RAI therapy were excluded. In total, 293 patients (201 female and 92 male, median age 54 years) were selected. Two nuclear medicine physicians interpreted the Rx-WBS images by determining the visual intensity of radioiodine uptake by the thyroid bed, cervical and mediastinal lymph nodes, lungs, and bone. Clinical features of the patients with and without the metastatic accumulation were compared by chi-square test and median test. Logistic regression analyses were performed to compare the association between the presence of metastatic accumulation and these clinical factors. Eighty-four of 293 patients (28.7%) showed metastatic accumulation. Patients with metastatic RAI accumulation showed a significantly higher frequency of pathological N1 (pN1) and serum thyroglobulin (Tg) > 1.5 ng/ml under TSH stimulation (p = 0.035 and p = 0.031, respectively). Logistic regression analysis indicated that a serum Tg > 1.5 ng/ml was significantly correlated with the presence of metastatic accumulation (odds ratio = 1.985; p = 0.033). In conclusion, Patients with Tg > 1.5 ng/ml were more likely to show metastatic accumulation. In addition, the presence of lymph node metastasis at the initial thyroid surgery was also associated with this unexpected metastatic accumulation.
Influence of human adipose stem cells on prostate cancer cell growth

Tokunori Yamamoto, Momokazu Gotoh, Naoshi Koide, Yasuhito Funahashi, Shinobu Shimizu, and Yoshifumi Takei
pg(s) 217 - 224

<Abstract> - < PDF >

In a novel regenerative cell-based treatment developed by us for the patients with stress urinary incontinence, autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are injected into the periurethral region and the external urethral sphincter. Since the candidates for this treatment included prostate cancer patients after radical prostatectomy, we investigated the effects of ASCs on prostate cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo to confirm the feasibility of our therapeutic approach. The LNCaP (human prostate cancer cell line) cells and ASCs were co-cultured, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration in their culture medium supernatant was measured at 48 and 96 h. The PSA concentration significantly decreased in the coculture medium supernatant as compared to the culture medium with LNCaP cells alone. On the contrary, PSA concentrations in the culture medium of LNCaP cells were not affected by supplementation with ASC culture supernatant. After subcutaneous transplantation of LNCaP cells, with or without ASCs, in immunodeficient mice, tumor growth was compared. The growth of LNCaP xenograft tumor in immunodeficient mice was significantly suppressed by ASC addition. These results indicated that ASCs inhibit prostate cancer cell growth, without no proliferative effect on prostate cancer cells.
Is cell block technique useful to predict histological type in patients with ovarian mass and/or body cavity fluids?

Zenta Maseki, Hiroaki Kajiyama, Eri Nishikawa, Tatsunari Satake, Toshiya Misawa, and Fumitaka Kikkawa
pg(s) 225 - 235

<Abstract> - < PDF >

The cell block (CB) technique is a generalized method utilized for the diagnostic evaluation of body cavity fluids. Ascites cytology is one of the most important diagnostic processes for epithelial ovarian cancer. However, in clinical practice, the usefulness of the CB method to diagnose this tumor remains unelucidated. Between 2008 and 2017, 15 peritoneal or pleural fluid samples obtained from patients with ovarian or peritoneal carcinoma or other gastrointestinal malignancies were preoperatively subjected to a diagnostic evaluation to predict the histological type and original organ. The CBs were made from 10% formalin neutral buffer solution fixed sediments of fluid samples after cytological smears were made by conventional method. Four-µm thickness sections were prepared from the cell blocks and stained with immunohistochemical method, using 16 kinds of antibodies and hematoxylin eosin staining method. The cellularity, architectural patterns, and morphological details were also studied. The median (range) age of patients was 73 (35–87) years. The clinical features were identified as follows: pleural effusion in 4, ovarian mass in 7, peritoneal dissemination in 12, para-aortic nodal swelling in one, and liver tumor in one (some overlapping). Five patients had a history of prior malignancy. Finally, we could accurately diagnose the histological type in 9 patients based on subsequent biopsy, surgery, and autopsy. In all 9 women, the clinical diagnosis, CB diagnosis and final pathological diagnosis were consistent. The CB technique may be a helpful modality for evaluating fluid cytology to obtain a final histopathologic diagnosis.
Association between dietary inflammatory index and serum C-reactive protein concentrations in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study

Koji Suzuki, Nitin Shivappa, Miyuki Kawado, Hiroya Yamada, Shuji Hashimoto, Kenji Wakai, Hiroyasu Iso, Emiko Okada, Ryosuke Fujii, James R. Hébert, and Akiko Tamakoshi
pg(s) 237 - 249

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Diet plays an important role in the regulation of chronic inflammation, which is linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and several cancers. The dietary inflammatory index (DII®) was developed to estimate the inflammatory potential of an individual’s diet. We examined the association between DII scores and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations using the baseline data from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (JACC Study). Data were from 1176 control subjects (650 men and 526 women) in a nested case-control study of several cancers and CVD in the JACC Study who were free of cancer and CVD at baseline. DII scores were calculated from 26 food parameters that were derived from a validated food frequency questionnaire administered at the baseline. Energy-adjusted DII scores were calculated using the residual method. Serum hs-CRP concentrations were measured by latex-enhanced nephelometry or enzyme-immunoassay. In multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders including sex, age, smoking habits, drinking habits, body mass index, and history of hypertension, the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for high serum hs-CRP concentrations (>1.0 mg/L) was significantly higher in the highest versus the lowest DII quartile (ORQuartile4vs1 = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.01 to 2.52). Likewise, a 1-point increase in DII score was associated with a 14% increased risk of high serum hs-CRP concentrations (ORContinuous = 1.09, 95%CI = 1.01 to 1.19). A pro-inflammatory diet, as represented by high DII scores, was associated with high serum hs-CRP concentrations in this Japanese population.
Nursing activities at clinics in rural areas in Japan: gaps between recognition of importance and implementation

Manami Tateishi, Keisuke Nakanishi, Kimie Takehara, Ikumi Honda, and Toyoaki Yamauchi
pg(s) 251 - 260

<Abstract> - < PDF >

This study determined the level of implementation and the importance placed on various nursing activities at clinics in rural areas of Japan in order to explore the achievement and perceived importance of implementing certain nursing roles and activities at such clinics. To identify these items, a questionnaire was administered to 40 nurses working in rural clinics. The results showed that activities related to “Basic Nursing Practice” and “Community Understanding” were recognized as important and were performed by almost all nurses. Some activities related to “Administration and Operation” and “Cooperation with Local Government” were recognized as important, but were not implemented, thereby hampering the continuum of care across the health system. These activities, which are related to collaboration with hospitals and local governments that support the clinics, included adjustment of staff inside and outside the facilities to guarantee the use of paid holidays, as well as collaboration with acute care, remote medical systems, and local governments during emergencies and for disaster preparation. Additional support for nurses in collaboration between clinics in rural areas, hospitals, and regional administrations that support the clinics remains a challenge to be addressed.
Vaticanol C, a phytoalexin, induces apoptosis of leukemia and cancer cells by modulating expression of multiple sphingolipid metabolic enzymes

Chisato Inoue, Sayaka Sobue, Naoki Mizutani, Yoshiyuki Kawamoto, Yuji Nishizawa, Masatoshi Ichihara, Toshiyuki Takeuchi, Fumihiko Hayakawa, Motoshi Suzuki, Tetsuro Ito, Yoshinori Nozawa, and Takashi Murate
pg(s) 261 - 280

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Resveratrol (RSV) has recently attracted keen interest because of its pleiotropic effects. It exerts a wide range of health-promoting effects. In addition to health-promoting effects, RSV possesses anti-carcinogenic activity. However, a non-physiological concentration is needed to achieve an anti-cancer effect, and its in vivo bioavailability is low. Therefore, the clinical application of phytochemicals requires alternative candidates that induce the desired effects at a lower concentration and with increased bioavailability. We previously reported a low IC50 of vaticanol C (VTC), an RSV tetramer, among 12 RSV derivatives (Ito T. et al, 2003). However, the precise mechanism involved remains to be determined. Here, we screened an in-house chemical library bearing RSV building blocks ranging from dimers to octamers for cytotoxic effects in several leukemia and cancer cell lines and their anti-cancer drug-resistant sublines. Among the compounds, VTC exhibited the highest cytotoxicity, which was partially inhibited by a caspase 3 inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK. VTC decreased the expression of sphingosine kinase 1, sphingosine kinase 2 and glucosylceramide synthase by transcriptional or post-transcriptional mechanisms, and increased cellular ceramides/dihydroceramides and decreased sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). VTC-induced sphingolipid rheostat modulation (the ratio of ceramide/S1P) is thought to be involved in cellular apoptosis. Indeed, exogenous S1P addition modulated VTC cytotoxicity significantly. A combination of SPHK1, SPHK2, and GCS chemical inhibitors induced sphingolipid rheostat modulation, cell growth suppression, and cytotoxicity similar to that of VTC. These results suggest the involvement of sphingolipid metabolism in VTC-induced cytotoxicity, and indicate VTC is a promising prototype for translational research.
Contributions of residual hypoxemia to exercise hyperventilation in Fontan patients

Yukiko Okamura, Machiko Kito, Kazushi Yasuda, and Reizo Baba
pg(s) 281 - 289

<Abstract> - < PDF >

It is unsettled whether increased exercise ventilation in Fontan subjects is due to increased pulmonary dead space or augmented ventilatory drive. Twenty-six Fontan patients underwent symptom-limited treadmill cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Two groups of age- and sex- matched subjects served as controls: the biventricularly repaired (Bi, n = 18), and the “true” control (C, n = 29) groups. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) was not different among groups (41.0 +/– 8.4 ml/min/kg, 43.5 +/– 6.6 ml/min/kg, and 45.9 +/– 11.6 ml/min/kg for Fontan, Bi, and C groups, respectively, p = 0.16). Fontan subjects, however, showed steeper alveolar ventilation/carbon-dioxide (VA/VCO2) regression slope (35.5 +/– 5.3, 28.7 +/– 3.8, and 29.5 +/– 3.0 l/ml, for Fontan, Bi, and C groups, respectively, p<0.0001), and lower end-expiratory carbon-dioxide fraction (FetCO2VAT) at ventilatory threshold (VAT) (4.4 +/– 0.5%, 5.5 +/– 0.5%, and 5.5 +/– 0.4%, for Fontan, Bi, and C groups, respectively, p<0.001). The dead-space ventilation fraction at VAT was similar among groups (0.33 +/– 0.06, 0.33 +/– 0.04, 0.35 +/– 0.05 for Fontan, Bi, and C groups, respectively, p = 0.54). In Fontan subjects, arterial oxygen saturation at rest (SaO2rest) was correlated with VA/VCO2 regression slope (r = –0.41, p = 0.04) and with FetCO2VAT (p = –0.53, p<0.01). We conclude that Fontan patients show exercise hyperventilation due to augmented central and/or peripheral ventilatory drive, which is further augmented by residual hypoxemia.
Correlation between blood flow, tissue volume and microvessel density in the flap

Yutaka Nakamura, Keisuke Takanari, Ryota Nakamura, Masashi Ono, Takafumi Uchibori, Masashi Hishida, Kenta Murotani, Katsumi Ebisawa, Miki Akagawa, and Yuzuru Kamei
pg(s) 291 - 300

<Abstract> - < PDF >

The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between tissue volume and blood flow of the flap in an animal model. Using animal model, tissue volume can be attenuated, and precise change of blood flow could be evaluated. We further investigate the relationship between blood flow and vascular density in the tissue. In this study, we assessed flap conductance (ml/min/mm Hg) as to evaluate the conductivity of blood flow into the flap. Japanese white rabbit was used (n = 7) for this study. The amount of blood flow of jejunal and latissimus dorsi muscle (LD) flaps was measured while removing the distal portion of the flap sequentially. Conductance at each time was calculated from blood pressure and blood flow volume. The tissue volume at each time was also measured. The correlation between conductance and volume was analyzed using a linear mixed model. Immunohistochemical evaluation of microvessel densities (MVD) in these tissues was also performed for CD31/PECAM1 positive area. Conductance and tissue volume were significantly correlated in both jejunal and LD flaps. As the volume increases by 1 cm3, the conductance increased significantly by 0.012 ml/min/mm Hg in jejunum, and by 0.0047 ml/min/mm Hg in LD. Mean MVD was 1.15 ± 0.52% in the jejunum and 0.37 ± 0.29% in the LD muscle. In this study, we revealed that flap conductance is proportional to volume and proportional constant is different between the type of tissue. It suggests that the difference of MVD creates the unique conductance of each tissue.
High-flow nasal cannula therapy for acute respiratory failure in patients with interstitial pneumonia: a retrospective observational study

Norihito Omote, Naoyuki Matsuda, Naozumi Hashimoto, Kazuki Nishida, Koji Sakamoto, Akira Ando, Yoshio Nakahara, Mitsuaki Nishikimi, Michiko Higashi, Shigeyuki Matsui, and Yoshinori Hasegawa
pg(s) 301 - 313

<Abstract> - < PDF >

High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen is a therapy that has demonstrated survival benefits in acute respiratory failure (ARF). However, the role of HFNC in ARF due to interstitial pneumonia (IP) is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of HFNC therapy and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in ARF due to IP. This retrospective observational study included 32 patients with ARF due to IP who were treated with HFNC (n = 13) or NPPV (n = 19). The clinical characteristics, intubation rate and 30-day mortality were analyzed and compared between the HFNC group and the NPPV group. Predictors of 30-day mortality were evaluated using a logistic regression model. HFNC group showed higher mean arterial blood pressure (median 92 mmHg; HFNC group vs 74 mmHg; NPPV group) and lower APACHEII score (median 22; HFNC group vs 27; NPPV group) than NPPV group. There was no significant difference in the intubation rate at day 30 between the HFNC group and the NPPV group (8% vs 37%: p = 0.069); the mortality rate at 30 days was 23% and 63%, respectively. HFNC therapy was a significant determinant of 30-day mortality in univariate analysis, and was confirmed to be an independent significant determinant of 30-day mortality in multivariate analysis (odds ratio, 0.148; 95% confidence interval, 0.025–0.880; p = 0.036). Our findings suggest that HFNC therapy can be a possible option for respiratory management in ARF due to IP. The results observed here warrant further investigation of HFNC therapy in randomized control trials.
Intervention efficacy for eliminating patient misidentification using step-by-step problem-solving procedures to improve patient safety

Tatsuya Fukami, Masakazu Uemura, Mineko Terai, Tomomi Umemura, Mika Maeda, Mayumi Ichikawa, Naoko Sawai, Fumimasa Kitano, and Yoshimasa Nagao
pg(s) 315 - 321

<Abstract> - < PDF >

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of interventions to reduce patient misidentification incidents classified as level 2 and over (adverse events occurred for patients) with the step-by-step problem-solving method. All incidents related to patient misidentification were selected, and relevant information was collected from the original electronic incident reports. We then conducted an eight-step problem-solving process with the aim of reducing patient misclassification and improving patient safety. Step 1: the number of misidentification-related incident reports and the percentage of these reports in the total incident reports increased each year. Step 2: the most frequent misidentification type was sample collection tubes, followed by drug administration and hospital meals. Step 3: we set a target of an 20% decrease in patient misidentification cases classified as level 2 or over compared with the previous year, and established this as a hospital priority. Step 4: we found that discrepancies in patient identification procedures were the most important causes of misidentification. Step 5: we standardized the patient identification process to achieve an 10% reduction in misidentification. Step 6: we disseminated instructional videos to all staff members. Step 7: we confirmed there was an 18% reduction in level 2 and over patient misidentification compared with the previous year. Step 8: we intend to make additional effort to decrease misidentification of patients by a further 10%. Level 2 and over patient misidentification can be reduced by a patient identification policy using a step-by-step problem-solving procedure. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of interventions to reduce patient misidentification incidents with step-by-step problem-solving method. Continued seamless efforts to eliminate patient misidentification are mandatory for this activity.
Maternal exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors during pregnancy is associated with pediatric germ cell tumors

Hou-Wei Lin, Hai-Xia Feng, Lin Chen, Xiao-Jun Yuan, and Zhen Tan
pg(s) 323 - 333

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) are natural or synthetic chemical compounds that interfere with normal endocrine function in both wildlife and humans. Previous studies have indicated that EEDs may contribute to oncogenesis. This study explores the relationship between EEDs and pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs). A case-control study was conducted in 84 pediatric patients from 2014 to 2017, including 42 subjects with immature teratoma, yolk sac tumor, or germinoma, and 42 controls who experienced pneumonia or trauma. Serum PFASs, including PFBS, PFHpA, PFHxS, PFOA, PFOS, PFNA, PFDA, PFUA, PFOSA, and PFDoA, were measured in each subject, and their history of possible EED exposure was reviewed. Six of the 10 measured PFASs were significantly increased in the GCT group relative to the control group. With respect to lifestyle history, only PFHxS levels were statistically significantly associated with GCTs as determined by logistic regression analysis. The odds ratio for a 1 ng/L increase in PFHxS was 19.47 (95% CI: 4.20–90.26). Furthermore, in the GCT and control groups, both parental consumption of barbecued foods and hair dye use among parents were significantly correlated with elevated serum PFHxS levels (ρ= 0.383, 0.325 in the patient group and ρ= 0.370, 0.339 in the control group; p < 0.05). Our study confirmed that children with GCTs from our institute had relatively high serum levels of PFASs relative to those of tumor-free pediatric patients. Serum PFHxS levels were independently associated with germ cell tumor occurrence.
Different factors are associated with conventional adenoma and serrated colorectal neoplasia

Leonardo Zorron Cheng Tao Pu, Khizar Rana, Gurfarmaan Singh, Masanao Nakamura, Takeshi Yamamura, Doreen Siew Ching Koay, Amanda Ovenden, Suzanne Edwards, Andrew Ruszkiewicz, Yoshiki Hirooka, Mitsuhiro Fujishiro, Alastair D Burt, and Rajvinder Singh
pg(s) 335 - 343

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Current data shows there are differences in factors associated with colorectal neoplasia based on geographical location and cultural settings. There are no studies focusing on the association between environmental factors and colorectal polyps in Australia. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the association of various factors with different colorectal neoplasia histology. We utilized a simplified one-page questionnaire for patients undergoing colonoscopy for information on age; gender; comorbidities; family history of colorectal cancer; physical activity; smoking; diet; alcohol intake; and body mass index. Factors were then evaluated for association with the presence of: (1) neoplastic lesions; (2) conventional adenomas; (3) neoplastic serrated polyps; (4) any lesions (past and present); and (5) hyperplastic polyps. 291 procedures and 260 patients were included. Factors with a p-value < 0.2 in a univariate regression were included in an initial multivariable regression model. Backwards elimination was then performed, removing one predictor at a time until only significant predictors remained. In the final multivariable model, age≥65, male gender, type-2 diabetes mellitus, active smoking and family history of colorectal cancer were found to be statistically significant predictors for the presence of colorectal neoplasia. However, the significant predictors found for conventional adenomas (older age, male gender and smoking) were different from the significant predictors for neoplastic serrated polyps (type-2 diabetes mellitus and family history of colorectal cancer). Older age, male gender, type-2 diabetes mellitus, and smoking were significantly associated with the presence of colorectal neoplasia. The factors associated with conventional adenomas differed from those associated with neoplastic serrated polyps.
A proteome signature of umbilical cord serum associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia

Asuka Tachi, Yoshinori Moriyama, Hiroyuki Tsuda, Rika Miki, Takafumi Ushida, Mayo Miura, Yumiko Ito, Kenji Imai, Tomoko Nakano-Kobayashi, Masahiro Hayakawa, Fumitaka Kikkawa, and Tomomi Kotani
pg(s) 345 - 354

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a congenital anomaly characterized by a defect in the diaphragm. Despite the recent improvements in its treatment, CDH is associated with a high rate of neonatal mortality, which is often related to pulmonary hypoplasia (PH) as well as pulmonary hypertension. A better understanding of the underlying pathological mechanisms of PH in CDH could help establish a new treatment to improve its prognosis. In this study, we investigated serum biological profiles in neonates with CDH. For comprehensive investigation, umbilical cord serum samples were collected from isolated CDH cases (n = 4) and matched healthy controls (n = 4). Samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 697 proteins were detected; of them, 98 were identified as differentially expressed proteins. Among these differentially expressed proteins, complement C1q subcomponent showed the largest fold change, followed by complement C5. In the pathway enrichment analysis, the complement and coagulation cascades expressed the most significant enrichment (p = 2.4 × 10−26). Thus, the complement pathway might play some role in the pathophysiology of CDH.
Editors' Choice
Initial experience with in vivo “endovascular shaping” technique that utilizes the vascular configuration for small cerebral aneurysm coiling

Yoshiki Hanaoka, Jun-ichi Koyama, Daisuke Yamazaki, Yoshinari Miyaoka, Yu Fujii, Takuya Nakamura, Toshihiro Ogiwara, Kiyoshi Ito, and Tetsuyoshi Horiuchi
pg(s) 355 - 362

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Optimal shaping of a microcatheter tip is a key factor in cerebral aneurysm coiling. However, safe cannulation and stabilization of a microcatheter can be technically challenging with small aneurysms requiring precise microcatheter shaping. We devised a new microcatheter shaping technique which bends a microcatheter tip in the intended direction by placing and keeping the tip in the selected branch of the parent artery for 5 minutes: endovascular shaping technique. Our method can complete microcatheter shap-ing only inside the patient’s body; an endovascularly shaped microcatheter will never face a straightening deformity and rotation problem associated with catheter reinsertion. The aim was to assess the feasibility and safety of endovascular shaping for small aneurysm coiling. Clinically, 10 consecutive challenging small terminal-type aneurysms (< 5 mm) treated with endovascular shaping were included. We retrospectively analyzed the newly acquired bend angle of a microcatheter tip after the shaping, the procedural success, and clinical outcomes. An artificial vascular model was used to confirm our findings. In all the 10 patients (three middle cerebral artery, four anterior communicating artery, and three basilar artery aneurysms), the endovascularly shaped microcatheters were bent toward the placement branch at an average of 21.7° and excellently guided into the aneurysms. Coil embolization was successfully accomplished without any complications. The results of the vascular model experiment demonstrated that an endovascularly shaped microcatheter acquired new bend angle toward the placement branch. Endovascular shaping was feasible and safe for small terminal-type aneurysm coiling. Our method can provide accurate shaping and stability during aneurysm coiling procedure.
Multiple self-care behaviors and associated factors in community-dwelling patients with hypertension in Myanmar

Ze Haung, Seo Ah Hong, Phudit Tejativaddhana, Apa Puckpinyo, and Myat Noe Htin Aung Myint
pg(s) 363 - 376

<Abstract> - < PDF >

This study aimed to identify the prevalence of self-care behaviors and the associated factors among hypertensive patients in primary care in Myanmar. This cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2019 among 410 hypertensive patients in Myitkyina Township, Kachin State, Myanmar. Hypertensive patients aged 30–70 years old and being registered at the community health centers in Myitkyina Township were selected using multi-stage cluster random sampling. Self-care behaviors were measured by Hyperten-sive Self-Care Activity Level Effect (H-SCALE). Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to explore the associated factors. Prevalence of adherence to multiple self-care behaviors were low: avoidance of tobacco use at 50.2%, followed by physical activity at 24.9%, medication at 24.1%, weight management at 9.5%, and healthy diet at 2.7%, while abstinence from harmful alcohol drinking was high at 97.8%. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that younger patients, low family income, inadequate knowledge, and no comorbidity were associated with non-adherence to medication. Living in rural area and having poor self-efficacy were associated with non-adherence to weight management, while being younger, female and having poor self-efficacy were also associated with non-adherence to physical activity. Compared with Kachin, other ethnics were more likely to be non-adherent to avoidance of tobacco use. Although a majority of respondents were not harmful drinkers, adherence to medication, healthy diet, physical activity, weight management and avoidance of tobacco use were very low. Health practitioners should provide education programs for hypertensive patients to direct them towards practical techniques in managing their blood pressure.


Growing skull fracture with an atypical mechanism: a case report

Masahiro Aoyama, Masahiro Joko, Aichi Niwa, Kenichiro Iwami, Masahito Hara, Koji Osuka, and Shigeru Miyachi
pg(s) 377 - 381

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Growing skull fractures (GSFs) are well-known but rare causes of pediatric head trauma. They generally occur several months after a head injury, and the main lesion is located under the periosteum. We herein report a case involving a 3-month-old boy with GSF that developed by a different mechanism than previously consid-ered. It developed 18 days after the head injury. A large mass containing cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue was present within the periosteum. A good outcome was obtained with early strategic surgery. Injury to the inner layer of the periosteum and sudden increase in intracranial pressure might be related to GSF in this case.
Postoperative iatrogenic spinal cord herniation: three case reports with a literature review

Hiroaki Nakashima, Yoshimoto Ishikawa, Fumihiko Kato, Tokumi Kanemura, Ryuichi Shinjo, Kei Ando, Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Naoki Ishiguro, and Shiro Imagama
pg(s) 383 - 389

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Although a majority of spinal cord herniation reportedly occurs idiopathically, postoperative iatrogenic spinal cord herniation is rare. Therefore, the incidence rate, pathogenic mechanism, and clinical outcomes are not clear. We present three cases of postoperative iatrogenic spinal cord herniation and present a literature review. Our data base included 32253 patients who underwent spinal surgery, and among these patients, 3 showed postoperative spinal cord herniation. Postoperative spinal cord herniation was observed in a 55-year-old man and a 60-year-old man. Both these patients underwent cervical laminoplasty for degenerative cervical myelopathy; however, intraoperative dural tear was reported. They presented with severe quadriplegia and sensory disorders at 8 years and 2 months after initial surgery. The third case of postoperative spinal cord herniation was of a 47-year-old woman who underwent Th11/12 schwannoma resection. Her neurological symptoms did not improve after tumor resection, and MRI at 2 months after surgery revealed spinal cord herniation. All the 3 patients underwent spinal cord reduction surgery; one patient showed sufficient neurological improvement while 2 patients with cervical spinal cord herniation showed limited neurological improvement due to preoperative severe quadriplegia. Although postoperative iatrogenic spinal cord herniation is a relatively rare pathology, careful observation with postoperative MRI is required in cases of patients with new neurological symptoms after dural injury and durotomy.