VOLUME 81 NUMBER 4 November 2019

Current Issue

ISSN 2186-3326
(Online ISSN)
ISSN 0027-7622
(Print ISSN--v.72no.3/4)

Impact Factor(2019)
 0.762

REVIEW ARTICLE

Congenital esophageal stenosis: a rare malformation of the foregut

Vesna Brzački, Bojan Mladenović, Ljiljana Jeremić, Dragoljub Živanović, Nenad Govedarović, Dragan Dimić, Mladjan Golubović, and Viktor Stoičkov
pg(s) 535–547

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) is a type of esophageal stenosis, and three histological subtypes (tracheobronchial remnants, fibromuscular thickening or fibromuscular stenosis, and membranous webbing or esophageal membrane) are described. Symptoms of CES usually appears with the introduction of the semisolid alimentation. Dysphagia is the most common symptom, but esophageal food impaction, respiratory distress or failure to thrive can be clinical manifestations of CES. Wide spectrum of differential diagnoses leads to delayed definitive diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Depends on hystological subtype of CES, some treatment procedures (dilation or segmental esophageal resection) are recommended, but individually approach is still important in terms of frequency and type of dilation procedures or type of the surgical treatment. Dysphagia can persist after the treatment and a long follow-up period is recommended. In 33% of patients with CES, a different malformations in the digestive system, but also in the other systems, are described.

ORIGINAL PAPERS

Routine presternotomy extracorporeal circulation for redo surgery

Toshikuni Yamamoto, Shunei Saito, Akio Matsuura, Ken Miyahara, Haruki Takemura, and Ryohei Otsuka
pg(s) 549–555

<Abstract> - < PDF >

To reduce the risk of adverse events, presternotomy extracorporeal circulation (ECC) is routinely performed at our institution for patients who require resternotomy. We report our 10-year experience of performing presternotomy ECC for cardiac reoperation and the clinical results. Fifty-seven consecutive cardiac reoperations involving resternotomy were performed between January 2006 and December 2015. ECC was established prior to median sternotomy in all patients. Two patients sustained injury to the right ventricle during sternotomy. Eleven patients sustained injury to the mediastinal structures during dissection (right atrium in 3; superior vena cava in 2; inferior vena cava in 3; left internal thoracic artery in 1; and saphenous vein graft in 2 patients). Longer ECC time and greater transfusion volume were necessary. Two patients (3.5%) died within 30 days of operation. Perioperative morbidity included reexploration for bleeding in 4 (7.0%), stroke in 1 (1.8%), acute renal failure that required hemodialysis in 5 (8.8%), sepsis in 5 patients (8.8%), prolonged ventilation in 9 (15.8%) and tracheostomy in 5 (8.8%). Routine establishment of presternotomy ECC reduces the risk of injury to the mediastinal structures during reentry and facilitates easier repair in the event of structural injury during reentry or dissection. However, longer ECC time and significantly greater transfusion volume requires attention.
Spirituality in older men living alone near the end-of-life

Yoshihisa Hirakawa, Chifa Chiang, Kazuki Yasuda, Yoshinobu Iwaki, Hideaki Andoh, and Atsuko Aoyama
pg(s) 557–570

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Older people living alone has been reported to be socially isolated and suffering from loneliness. Although spiritual care is a core element of end-of-life care for older people, a clear-cut definition of spirituality has not been established yet. It remains unclear how spirituality is perceived by heath care professionals and how spiritual care is delivered in the end of life. Also, most of the previous studies on perspective of older people living alone targeted women, while very few researches shed light on the experience of older men. The aim of the present study was to investigate the spirituality of older men living alone near the end-of-life. We conducted group interviews targeting 30 care managers and individual in-depth interviews to 15 older men living alone. Qualitative content analysis was used. Five main themes emerged: worthlessness and hopelessness, autonomy and independence, comfort and gratitude, past experiences, and well-being indicator. Our findings provide important additional information that can help clinicians, nurses and care managers achieve better patient-centered care for older men living alone and enhance their dignity. Our investigation found that Japanese older men living alone were enjoying their autonomous status and freedom, despite wide spread negative views of them. Their spiritual health was found to be enhanced through gratitude to everyone with whom they had crossed paths in their life, yearning for the presence of a female companion, and confirming their health measurements were comparative or better than those of others in the same age group.
Predictors of denosumab efficacy in treating osteoporosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a Japanese multicenter study

Kyosuke Hattori, Yuji Hirano, Yasuhide Kanayama, Nobunori Takahashi, Naoki Ishiguro, and Toshihisa Kojima
pg(s) 571–585

<Abstract> - < PDF >

We investigated 2-year outcomes of denosumab treatment for osteoporosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and predictors of good outcomes. Study participants were 74 females treated with denosumab for 24 months. After investigating baseline demographics and overall time course for each patient, we divided all cases into two groups according to percent change (%) in bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine (LS-) and total hip (TH-) at 24 months (-24m); two thirds of the patients were allocated to the good outcome group (LS-GO and TH-GO), and the other third to the non-good outcome group (LS-NG and TH-NG). We performed multivariate analysis to confirm predictors of greater increases in LS- and TH-BMD. LS-BMD-24m and TH-BMD-24m increased significantly from baseline. We observed greater %LS-BMD-24m in LS-GO group than in LS-NG group, while %TH-BMD-24m showed no significant group-dependent difference. N-terminal propeptide of type 1 collagen (P1NP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP)-5b decreased more in LS-GO group than in LS-NG group at each time point. We observed greater %TH-BMD-24m in TH-GO group than in TH-NG group, while %LS-BMD-24m showed no significant group-dependent difference. Only P1NP-6m showed a larger decrease in TH-GO group relative to TH-NG group. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the larger decrease in P1NP-6m was associated with the greater increase in LS-BMD-24m, while the combined use of biologics was associated with the greater increase in TH-BMD-24m. In conclusions, denosumab increased BMD in RA patients with osteoporosis. The combined use of biologics and denosumab may provide useful treatment options.
Nasal patency as a factor for successful transnasal endoscopy

Toshihiko Nagaya, Ryoji Miyahara, Kohei Funasaka, Kazuhiro Furukawa, Takeshi Yamamura, Takuya Ishikawa, Eizaburo Ohno, Masanao Nakamura, Hiroki Kawashima, Tsutomu Nakashima, Seiichi Nakata, and Yoshiki Hirooka
pg(s) 587–595

<Abstract> - < PDF >

In recent years, transnasal endoscopy had been more widely accepted for its safety and convenience, and although it can lead to a weaker pharyngeal reflex, compared with the effects of transoral endoscopy, examinees often suffer intolerable pain and discomfort during passage of the endoscope through the nasal cavity. The aim of this study was to estimate the relationship between the uncomfortable factors during transnasal endoscopy and nasal patency. The subjects comprised 23 consecutive patients who underwent transnasal endoscopy from October 2007 to April 2009 at our Gastroenterology and Otorhinolaryngology Departments. Immediately prior to endoscopy, the left and right nasal resistance was measured with an active anterior rhinomanometer; a value of 100 Pa was determined as nasal resistance. The transnasal endo-scope was inserted in the subjectively preferred side by the examinee. Thereafter, the subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire on physical tolerance during the procedure, to quantify the sensations of nasal pain, nausea, and choking on a 10-point visual analogue scale. The mean scores were 3.0 ± 2.7 for nasal pain, 1.7 ± 2.0 for choking, and 1.6 ± 1.9 for nausea. The most intolerable factor among the complaints was pain (45%), which was followed by nausea (18%) and choking (9%). Unilateral nasal resistance was significantly related with nasal pain only (P = 0.0135). In conclusion, the most difficult problem during transnasal endoscopy was pain, which was related to nasal patency. We successfully demonstrated the clinical significance of nasal patency in determining the side of insertion for transnasal endoscopy.
Guiding patients to appropriate care: developing Japanese outpatient triage nurse competencies

Mihoko Usui and Toyoaki Yamauchi
pg(s) 597–612,

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Japanese patients often seek hospital services without a primary provider’s referral. A triage nurse who is the initial point of contact for a patient is challenged with the task of expertly evaluating the urgency of the condition and selecting the appropriate specialty service for every patient’s needs. A triage nurse must also recognize any conditions requiring emergency medical services instead of a specialty outpatient service. A modified Delphi method was used to establish expert consensus regarding triage nursing competencies for secondary and higher-level health care facilities in Japan.
The initial Delphi round was completed using a questionnaire of 80 competencies that were evaluated by 85 Japanese nurse experts with in-depth knowledge of triage and/or the current Japanese hospital system. Four additional competency items were added based on the experts’ suggestions for a total of 84 items. The experts rated these items on a 7-point Likert scale based on importance. Minimal attrition rate yielded consistent and rich results.
The results were analyzed to identify items rated as very important by the majority. Twenty-two items were included in the final list of competencies. The authors then refined the language and reorganized the items into four proposed domains. The proposed domains and the refined list of competencies provide a foundation for the development of training programs for outpatient triage nurses in the current Japanese health care system.
Diagnostic contribution of cytological examination to endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial biopsy for lung malignancies

Shigehisa Kajikawa, Naoyuki Imai, Shotaro Okachi, Hiroshi Yatsuya, Tomohide Souma, Toshikazu Watanabe, Yasuhiro Goto, Tomoyuki Minezawa, Naozumi Hashimoto, Kazuyoshi Imaizumi, and Yoshinori Hasegawa
pg(s) 613–620

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Although endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial biopsy (TBB) with a guide sheath (EBUS-GS) is widely used for diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions, the diagnostic contribution of cytology (bronchial brushing, bronchial washing and biopsy forceps rinse) has not been established. To determine the diagnostic contribution of cytological examination to EBUS-GS-TBB, we reviewed medical records of patients with lung malignancies who had undergone TBB with EBUS-GS (EBUS-GS group, n=187) or TBB without EBUS-GS (conventional TBB [CTBB] group, n=197) at Nagoya University Hospital. Although the mean size of target lesions was significantly larger in the CTBB group than the EBUS-GS group, the total diagnostic rate was equivalent between two groups (EBUS-GS: 73.3%, CTBB: 66.0%). In the EBUS-GS group, cytological procedures increased the diagnostic rate by 9.1% (17/137), compared with only 4.1% (8/130) in the CTBB group. Sensitivity of cytology among biopsy-negative patients was significantly higher in EBUS-GS group than CTBB group (P=0.022). Furthermore, in the EBUS-GS group, among 17 patients whose malignant diagnoses could only be established cytologically, bronchial brushing contributed to the malignant diagnosis in 64.7% (11/17). These data may suggest that cytological examination, especially bronchial brushing, may be an important diagnostic contributor in EBUS-GS-TBB.
Tibial rotational alignment after opening-wedge and closing-wedge high tibial osteotomy

Ryosuke Kawai, Takashi Tsukahara, Itaru Kawashima , and Harumoto Yamada
pg(s) 621–628

<Abstract> - < PDF >

A lot of good outcomes have been reported after opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO) and closing-wedge high tibial osteotomy (CWHTO).The purpose of this study was to examine the rotational alignment after OWHTO and CWHTO performed by the same surgeon in one hospital.
The sample included 30 knees from 24 patients. In all cases, the same orthopaedic surgeon performed the osteotomy surgeries using the same method. The tibial external rotation angle (TERA) was measured using the CT images of proximal tibial plateau and distal tibial malleolus from the consecutive axial CT slices of tibia. In this study, two considerations were examined. The first was the change in rotation angle, which was defined by TERA noted before and after the operation. The second was the relationship between the correction angle of the osteotomy and the rotation angle change of the distal tibia. The first was evaluated using the paired-Student’s t-test, while the second was analyzed with Pearson’s correlation coefficient. In the OWHTO group, the mean TERA was 21.4± 7.0° preoperatively and 20.2 ± 8.0° postoperatively, but no significant difference was seen between pre- and post-operation measurements (p = 0.21). Significant TERA increasing (that is, external rotation of the distal tibia) was seen postoperatively in only three knees. In the CWHTO group, the mean TERA was 19.9 ± 10.5° preoperatively and 16.5 ± 9.5° postoperatively, and significant difference was seen between pre- and post-operative TERA (p < 0.05). No significant correlation was seen between the correction angle and the change of the rotation angle in either group (r = 0.40, r = 0.12) .
In the OWHTO group, both internal and external rotation of the distal tibia can occur after surgery. In the CWHTO group, the distal tibia rotated internally postoperatively. No significant correlation was seen between the correction angle and the change in the rotation angle in either group
Factors influencing blood flow resistance from a large internal carotid artery aneurysm revealed by a computational fluid dynamics model

Tasuku Imai, Takashi Izumi, Haruo Isoda, Kenta Ishiguro, Takashi Mizuno, Tetsuya Tsukada, Asuka Kropp, Masashi Ito, Masahiro Nishihori, Mamoru Ishida, Yosuke Tamari, and Toshihiko Wakabayashi
pg(s) 629–636

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Hyperperfusion syndrome occurs after treatment of a large or giant cerebral aneurysm. Recently, flow-diverter stent placement has emerged as an effective treatment method for a large cerebral aneurysm, but postoperative ipsilateral delayed intraparenchymal hemorrhage occurs in a minority of cases. The mechanism underlying delayed intraparenchymal hemorrhage is not established, but one possibility is hyperperfusion syndrome. The incidence of delayed intraparenchymal hemorrhage appears to be higher for giant aneurysms; hence, we speculated that large/giant aneurysms may create flow resistance, and mitigation by flow-diverter stent deployment leads to hyperperfusion syndrome and delayed intraparenchymal hemorrhage. The purpose of this study was to identify aneurysm characteristics promoting flow resistance by the analysis of pressure loss in an internal carotid artery paraclinoid aneurysm model using com-putational fluid dynamics. A virtual U-shaped model of the internal carotid artery siphon portion was created with a spherical aneurysm of various angles, body diameters, and neck diameters. Visualization of streamlines, were calculated of pressure loss between proximal and distal sides of the aneurysm, and vorticity within the aneurysm were calculated. The pressure loss and vorticity demonstrated similar changes according to angle, peaking at 60°. In contrast, aneurysm diameter had little influence on pressure loss. Larger neck width, however, increases pressure loss. Our model predicts that aneurysm location and neck diameter can increase the flow resistance from a large internal carotid artery aneurysm. Patients with large aneurysm angles and neck diameters may be at increased risk of hyperperfusion syndrome and ensuing delayed intraparenchymal hemorrhage following flow-diverter stent treatment.
Insomnia affects future development of depression in workers: a 6-year cohort study

Naoko Nishitani, Yurika Kawasaki, and Hisataka Sakakibara
pg(s) 637–645

<Abstract> - < PDF >

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between insomnia and future risk of developing depression. This was a 6-year cohort survey from 2011 to 2017. A questionnaire was conducted with male workers in a manufacturing industry. The questions included the Center for Epidemiologic Stud-ies Depression Scale (CES-D) for evaluating depression and the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) for rating insomnia. Data from 1,332 daytime workers aged less than 60 years who had no depressive symptoms at baseline were analyzed. The risk of developing depression in the future was associated with insomnia at baseline, after adjusting for age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.64). Even after adjusting for the covariances of job type, living with family, sleeping time, and undergoing treatment or taking medication, insomnia was associated with the onset of future depression (HR 1.58). In addition, the HR increased as the total AIS score increased: total AIS score 1–3 points (HR 1.99; 95% CI 1.23–3.22), 4–5 points (HR 3.58; 95% CI 2.18–5.89), and 6 points and above (HR 4.24; 95% CI 2.49–7.21). The risk of developing depression in the future increased in correlation with greater severity of insomnia at baseline, suggesting that even slight insomnia can be a risk of future developing depression. It may be important to measure the level of insomnia using an indicator such as AIS, and to improve sleep quality in workers to prevent depression.
Incidence of reexpansion pulmonary edema in minimally invasive cardiac surgery

Takahiro Tamura, Toshiaki Ito, Shuichi Yokota, Shigeki Ito, Yoko Kubo, Masahiko Ando, and Kimitoshi Nishiwaki
pg(s) 647–654

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Minimally invasive cardiac surgery requires fewer blood transfusions and mediastinitis is less frequently observed compared to conventional median sternotomy surgical intervention, and it leads to earlier recovery and discharge. However, once reexpansion pulmonary edema occurs, the patient requires long-term manage-ment in the intensive care unit. This retrospective study was performed to investigate the incidence of reexpansion pulmonary edema in minimally invasive cardiac surgery. Patients who underwent minimally invasive cardiac valve surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass and port-access by a minimal right lateral thoracic incision between January 2010 and January 2018 were enrolled in this single-center retrospective study, which was approved by the institutional review board of Japanese Red Cross Nagoya Daiichi Hospital (Nagoya, Japan), and the requirement for written informed consent was waived. All data were collected from electronic charts. The primary outcome was the incidence rate of reexpansion pulmonary edema in patients undergoing minimally invasive cardiac surgery. A total of 662 patients underwent minimally invasive cardiac surgery, and we analyzed 651 of these cases. No case of reexpansion pulmonary edema was observed in this study. The statistically-calculated incidence rate of reexpansion pulmonary edema was less than 0.6% (95% confidence interval: 0.0–0.6). The incidence of cerebral infarction was 0.92% (n = 6). Intensive care unit stay days, hospital stay days after surgery, and the death rate after 30 days were 1.5 ± 2.0 days, 9.6 ± 3.9 days, and 0.15%, respectively. Although there was no incidence of clinical reexpansion pulmonary edema in this study, the predicted incidence of reexpansion pulmonary edema by statistical analysis was less than 0.6%.
Editors' Choice
Association between green tea intake and risk of cognitive decline, considering glycated hemoglobin level, in older Japanese adults: the NILS-LSA study

Yoshiro Shirai, Kiyonori Kuriki, Rei Otsuka, Yuki Kato, Yukiko Nishita, Chikako Tange, Makiko Tomida, Tomoko Imai, Fujiko Ando, and Hiroshi Shimokata
pg(s) 655–666

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Positive and negative associations with risk of cognitive decline have been reported for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level and green tea (GT) intake, respectively. This study aimed to assess whether the reduction in the risk of cognitive decline with GT intake depended on HbA1c level. The participants were aged ≥60 years at baseline in the cohort study, wherein examinations were conducted biennially from 2000 to 2012. Subjects (n=1,304) who had no cognitive decline during the first survey and who had participated in the follow-up survey at least once were included. The follow-up end point was the first screening time point for cognitive decline (Mini-Mental State Examination score <27) or the last survey participation. With reference to the Japanese Diabetes Society guideline, the cut-off points for HbA1c level were set at 5.6%, 6.0%, and 6.5%, and lower and higher groups were assigned for each cut-off point. In a multiple Cox proportional hazard model, an interaction between GT intake and HbA1c groups for cognitive decline was observed only at HbA1c 6.0% (P-value for interaction [with Bonferroni’s correction] <0.05/3). Lower risks of cognitive decline were found for the HbA1c ≥5.6%, ≥6.0%, and <6.5% groups (hazard ratios: 0.59, 0.34, and 0.77; 95% confidence intervals: 0.41–0.88, 0.19–0.61, and 0.56–1.08 for “≥4 times a day” vs. “<once a day” GT intake, respectively; P-value for trend: 0.06, <0.01, and 0.09, respectively). With respect to blood glucose level, our cohort study showed non-uniformly reduced risk of cognitive decline with GT intake among older Japanese adults.
Social determinants of health in teenage girls involved with sexual exploitation on downtown streets late at night

Tsutomu Tanaka, Tadaaki Furuhashi, Toyoaki Ogawa, and Momoko Yabushita
pg(s) 667–678

<Abstract> - < PDF >

The purpose of this study was to chronicle the experiences of teenage girls who stay downtown late at night and are involved in sexual exploitation, and to clarify characteristics of their social circumstances and social determinants of health: socioeconomic status and educational opportunities. Between November 2009 and June 2013, we spoke with 89 adolescents who were loitering late at night in downtown Nagoya, Japan. We focused our research efforts on a case series of 22 girls who were 14–19 years of age and were involved in sexual exploitation. Semi-structured interviews were performed with the use of a questionnaire on the girls’ sexual and mental health, families, school life, living conditions, and future aspirations. Along with the questionnaires, we analyzed case series interviews with a qualitative approach (narratives-under-analysis by in-depth understanding in context). Nine girls worked in the sex industry, while thirteen were independent sex workers. Our observations included child maltreatment, unstable families, distressing school life, insufficient education, and inappropriate relationships with gangs and similar organizations. Moreover, an illegal sex market was linked with these gang associations. Despite their severe living conditions, most of them hoped to have happy families someday. To provide support to this vulnerable population and support their life aspirations, improvement of public health, social welfare, education, and school health systems should be considered carefully.

CASE REPORTS

Esophageal reconstruction using a pedicled jejunum following esophagectomy for metastatic esophageal stricture from breast cancer in a patient with previous pancreatoduodenectomy

Soichiro Asai, Masahide Fukaya, Hironori Fujieda, Tsuyoshi Igami, Nobuyuki Tsunoda, Yayoi Sakatoku, Yuzuru Kamei, Kazushi Miyata, and Masato Nagino
pg(s) 679–685

<Abstract> - < PDF >

A 71-year-old woman with dysphagia was diagnosed with thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by endoscopic biopsy at another hospital. She had previously undergone partial breast excision with axil-lary lymph node dissection for right breast cancer eleven years earlier and subtotal stomach-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy with Child’s reconstruction for ampullary cancer ten years earlier. Gastrointestinal endoscopy showed a stricture due to a bulging submucosal tumor in the mid-thoracic esophagus. The tumor was diagnosed as an esophageal metastasis from breast cancer by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. After six courses of fulvestrant, the tumor progressed, completely impeding her ability to swallow. An esophagectomy was planned in a one-stage operation because of the expectation of a prolonged survival and her strong hope of regaining oral intake. Unfortunately, she underwent emergent omental patch repair for perforation of the gastrojejunostomy site due to an anastomotic ulcer one day before the scheduled operation. Due to postoperative impairment of her performance status, she subsequently underwent a two-stage esophageal operation. In the first surgical stage, prone position thoracoscopic esophagectomy and cervical esophagostomy were performed and she was discharged with enteral nutrition on postoperative day 15. Sixty-one days after the first surgical stage, esophageal reconstruction was performed using a pedicled jejunum with microvascular anastomosis via the subcutaneous route. She was discharged without any complications 20 days after the second operation.
Unique presentation of cricoid cartilage fracture causing intermittent dyspnea without preceding trauma

Yuichiro Matsuo, Toru Yamada, and Eiji Hiraoka
pg(s) 687–691

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Cricoid cartilage fracture is generally caused by significant neck trauma and causes continuous dyspnea, neck pain, or hoarseness developing immediately after the traumatic episode. A 69-year-old woman without any history of trauma was admitted to our hospital with intermittent dyspnea. Six months before admis-sion she had started to complain of dyspnea occurring several times a month without warning, improving spontaneously within a few hours without treatment. Her primary care doctor diagnosed asthma and she was treated with inhaled short-acting beta agonists and glucocorticoids, without improvement. On initial evaluation at our hospital, the cause of dyspnea was unclear. Laryngoscopy was performed, which excluded vocal cord dysfunction. A further attack of dyspnea occurred on the fourth admission day. Stridor was evident during the attack, and bronchoscopy revealed subglottic narrowing of the trachea on both inspiration and expiration with no mass or foreign objects. Computed tomography (CT) of the neck revealed cricoid cartilage fracture causing airway narrowing and dyspnea. She was orally intubated, and tracheostomy was performed 2 weeks later to maintain her airway, which resolved her dyspnea. This patient’s presentation was unique in two aspects. First, there was no history of trauma that may cause her cricoid cartilage fracture. Second, her symptoms of dyspnea were intermittent rather than continuous. These aspects led to suspicions of other diseases such as asthma or vocal cord dysfunction, thus delaying the diagnosis. Cricoid cartilage fracture should be considered in patients with dyspnea of unknown cause, irrespective of continuous or intermittent symptoms and preceding traumatic episodes.
Repeated episodes of thoracic empyema after spontaneous esophageal rupture

Yayoi Sakatoku, Masahide Fukaya, Koji Kawaguchi, Hironori Fujieda, Kazushi Miyata, and Masato Nagino
pg(s) 693–699,

<Abstract> - < PDF >

A 52-year-old man with a cough, high fever, and inappetence was diagnosed with thoracic empyema on computed tomography at a local hospital. He had undergone continuous thoracic drainage for a spontaneous esophageal rupture that occurred 17 years earlier. He developed left thoracic empyema 2, 14 and 17 years following the initial esophageal rupture that improved with conservative therapy each time. The most recent episode of thoracic empyema also resolved with conservative therapy. However, he was referred to our hospital for further examination and more complete surgical treatment for recurrent thoracic empyema. Gastrointestinal endoscopy showed a scar from the previous esophageal rupture in the lower esophagus. We considered that recurrent esophageal rupture may have caused repeated episodes of thoracic empyema based on endoscopic findings and his past history and elected to perform subtotal esophagectomy to provide a complete cure. A left transthoracic esophagectomy with a left lower lung lobectomy and gastric tube reconstruction via a retrosternal route were performed. A latissimus dorsi muscle flap was used to eliminate the dead space after lower lung lobectomy to prevent recurrent thoracic empyema. The bronchial stump was covered with a pedicled intercostal muscle flap to prevent leakage from the stump. Minor leakage from the esophagogastrostomy site developed during the postoperative course but resolved with conservative therapy. The patient was transferred to the previous hospital on the 36th postoperative day. Four years after surgery, he had good oral intake and nutritional status without any evidence of recurrent thoracic empyema.
Natural reduction in acute intratumoral hemorrhage of spinal schwannoma in the cauda equina

Kenyu Ito, Kei Ando, Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Mikito Tsushima, Masaaki Machino, Kyotaro Ota, Masayoshi Morozumi, Satoshi Tanaka, Naoki Ishiguro, and Shiro Imagama
pg(s) 701–705

<Abstract> - < PDF >

A 58-year-old woman presented with acute pain in her back and her left leg. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an intradural schwannoma with an intratumoral hemorrhage between the lower L4 vertebra and L5/S1 disk level. A follow-up MRI after one month revealed that the tumor had regressed from the middle of L5 to the L5/S1 disk level. The tumor was totally resected. There have been several reports of intratumoral hemorrhage of spinal schwannomas occurring at the cervical, thoracic, and conus levels; however, there has been only one previous report of it being seen at the L2-3 middle lumbar level and none at all at lower lumbar levels. This is the first report of an intratumoral hemorrhage of a schwannoma in the lower lumbar area. Furthermore, natural regression of an intratumoral hemorrhage of spinal schwannoma at lower lumbar levels has not previously been reported.
A case of advanced prostate cancer controlled for the long term by flutamide after bicalutamide failure

Tomoaki Muramatsu, Yasuhito Funahashi, Akiyuki Yamamoto, Naoto Sassa, Yoshihisa Matsukawa, and Momokazu Gotoh
pg(s) 707–710

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Currently, the early introduction of new antiandrogens is popular for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, adverse events can be severe and their costs are high. Here, we present a patient with CRPC in whom flutamide controlled disease progression for 10 years. This case report shows that conventional alternative antiandrogens are cost effective and are still an important option for the treatment for CRPC.
Successful management of extensive bowel resection without intestinal continuity: a case report

Koichi Mohri, Eiji Takeuchi, Hideo Miyake, Hidemasa Nagai, Yuichiro Yoshioka, Masataka Okuno, and Norihiro Yuasa
pg(s) 711–716,

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Patients with intestinal ischemia associated with acute aortic dissection often require emergent bowel resection, which results in serious complications. We present a case of successful surgical management of extensive bowel necrosis caused by acute aortic dissection. A 42-year-old man underwent emergent subtotal resection of the small intestine, right colectomy, tube gastrostomy, and transverse colostomy; however, intestinal continuity was not restored. He developed two major postoperative complications: unconsciousness due to metabolic alkalosis caused by massive discharge from the gastrostomy and jaundice due to bile salt depletion caused by disruption of the enterohepatic circulation. His serum bilirubin levels decreased after the infusion of gastric discharge through gastrostomy into the transverse colon through the colostomy; thereafter, a second operation was performed to restore gastrointestinal continuity. Overall, patients undergoing massive bowel resection without intestinal continuity require careful management of electrolytes and bile salt.