VOLUME 31 NUMBER 1 June 1968

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ISSN 2186-3326
(Online ISSN)
ISSN 0027-7622
(Print ISSN--v.72no.3/4)

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The Actions and Absorption of Subarachnoid Blood
I. Experiment Al Hydrocephalus
II. Absorption of Intact Red Blood Cells from the Subarachnoid Space into the Blood

pg(s) 1 - 23

<Abstract> - < PDF >

(I) Experimental Hydrocephaius: Repeated injections of autogenous blood components into the cisterna magna were given to adult rabbits. Only the whole blood, if injected more than three times, could cause the ventricular dilatation. Hydrocephalus was not produced in animals which received repeated injections of washed red blood cells, plasma or hemolysed red blood cells. However, the breakdown product of red blood cells was able to induce meningeal reaction and fibrosis, and acted as a noxious agent on the CNS. It is concluded that an organization of the clot in the subarachnoid space results in pia-arachnoid adhesion and blockage of the CSF circulation.
(II) Absorption of Intact Red Blood Cells from the Subarachnoid Space into the Blcod: Absorption rate of intact red blood cells from the subarachnoid space into the blood was measured after the intracisternal injection of the RBC tagged with radioactive chromium. In normal rabbits, up to 16.6% of the total injected dose was recovered in the systemic blood in 72 hours, but the highest absorption was observed within 24 hours. Paradoxical enhancement of the absorption rate was observed, if the cisternal injections of whole blood had been made prior to the measurement. It is concluded that the absorption mechanism of the RBC is different in some respects from that of CSF. The concept on the valvular structure of the arachnoid villi, which was presented by Welch and Friedman, was taken into account and discussed.
Studies on Blood Viscosity During Extracorporeal Circulation

pg(s) 25 - 50

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Blood viscosity was studied during extracorporeal circulation by means of a cone in cone viscometer. This rotational viscometer provides sixteen kinds of shear rate, ranging from 0.05 to 250.2 sec-1
Merits and demerits of the equipment were described comparing with the capillary viscometer.
In experimental study it was well demonstrated that the whole blood viscosity showed the shear rate dependency at all hematocrit levels. The influence of the temperature change on the whole blood viscosity was clearly seen when hemato· crit was high and shear rate low.
The plasma viscosity was 1.8 cp. at 37°C and Newtonianlike behavior was observed at the same temperature. ·In the hypothermic condition plasma showed shear rate dependency.
Viscosity of 10% LMWD was over 2.2 fold as high as that of plasma.
The increase of CO2 content resulted in a constant increase in whole blood viscosity and the increased whole blood viscosity after C02 insufflation, rapidly decreased returning to a little higher level than that in untreated group within 3 minutes.
Clinical data were obtained from 27 patients who underwent hypothermic hemodilution perfusion.
In the cyanotic group, whole blood was much more viscous than in the non- cyanotic.
During bypass, hemodilution had greater influence upon whole blood viscosity than hypothermia, but it went inversely upon the plasma viscosity.
The whole blood viscosity was more dependent on dilution rate than amount of diluent in ml/kg.
The venous mixture was a little higher as to its viscosity than that of the oxygenated whole blood and the above phenomenon became more pronounced within low shear rate range.
Peripheral circulation was discussed in relation to the blood viscosity.
Clinical Studies of Hypothermic Perfusion with Hemodilution Technique, Especially its Influence on Water and Electrolytes Changes, and Renal Function

pg(s) 51 - 78

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Some Physiological Observations on the Exocrine Pancreas the Effects of Some Agents on Pancreatic Secretion

pg(s) 79 - 116

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Many problems are left unsolved on the exocrine pancreas. Pancreatic secretion is controlled by various factors while maintaining close relations with neighbouring organs. From the view point that the stomach and the pancreas are closely associated by way of gastrointestinal hormones, the factors involved in the mechanism of pancreatic secretion were investigated experimentally and clinically by using a gastrin related substance and serotonin. In the scantiness on the electrolyte changes in the pancreatic secretion, some observations were carried out on the electrolyte metabolism. Experiments with dogs and cats were performed under general anesthesia and pancreatic secretion was maintained by intravenous secretin injection. Clinical observations were carried out following ·pancreozymin-secretin combined test.
Gastrin appeared to activate pancreatic secretion and serotonin to depress pancreatic juice flow.
Neurogenic factors affecting pancreatic secretion were investigated after the administration of cholinergic and anticholinergic agents. The ecbolic action was activated by the former and the hydrelatic action was inhibited mainly by the latter.
The effects on the pancreatic secretion of two diuretics, acetazolamide and furosemide, were also observed. The depression of pancreatic juice flow with little change of electrolytes was demonstrated.
Clinical Study of the Cerebral Hemodynamics during Extracorporeal Circulation

pg(s) 117 - 142

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The cerebral circulation was studied on 40 clinical cases which underwent open heart surgery under extracorporeal circulation by the low flow rate-hypothermic-hemodilution technique, by means of Kr85, opthalmoscope, blood gas and pH, and cerebral metabolism.
Cerebral blood flow decreased to 65.2 percent of the control value after the start of extracorporeal bypass, but recovered by the later period of total perfusion, and then exceeded the control value during the rewarming and partial perfusion.
Cerebral metabolism was lowered to 37 percent of the control ''alue during the total perfusion, but recovered during the rewarming perfusion.
It was pointed out that the findings of the retina were useful to assess the adequacy of the cerebral hemodynamics during the bypass.
The present technique of extracorporeal circulation in this department of surgery was concluded to be adequate for the cerebral circulation.
Studies on Nonprecipitating Insulin Antibody
Radioimmunoassay of Insulin Binding Capacity and Its Relationship to Insulin Neutralizing Activity and Ability to Evoke Cutaneous Anaphylactic Reaction

pg(s) 143 - 153

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Skom and Talmage have demonstrated a non-precipitating antibody against insulin in the sera of insulin-treated diabetics. But their method of determining the antibody is not quantitative.
In the present study, a titration of the insulin binding activity of anti-insulin was performed more quantitatively using 131I-labeled insulin and antiguinea pig γ-globulin rabbit sera under the condition of insulin excess. Moreover, the insulin binding activity of anti-insulin was correlated with its insulin neutralizing activity and also with its ability to evoke a cutaneous anaphylactic· reaction.
A considerably good correlation was observed between the insulin neutralizing activity and insulin binding activity. On the other hand, between the insulin binding activity and the ability to evoke cutaneous anaphylactic reaction was only a poor correlation observed.