VOLUME 77 NUMBER 3 August 2015

Current Issue

ISSN 2186-3326
(Online ISSN)
ISSN 0027-7622
(Print ISSN--v.72no.3/4)

Impact Factor(2014)  0.750

EndNote Output Style

ORIGINAL PAPERS

Influence of spinal imbalance on knee osteoarthritis in community-living elderly adults

Ryoji Tauchi, Shiro Imagama, Akio Muramoto, Masaki Tsuboi, Naoki Ishiguro and Yukiharu Hasegawa
pg(s) 329 - 337

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Previous studies evaluated various risk factors for knee OA; however, no study has examined the association between spinal factors, such as total spinal alignment and spinal range of motion (ROM), with knee OA. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of spinal factors including total spinal alignment and spinal ROM on knee OA in community-living elderly subjects. A total of 170 subjects ≥60 years old (mean age 69.4 years, 70 males and 100 females) enrolled in the study (Yakumo study) and underwent a basic health checkup. We evaluated A-P knee radiographs, sagittal parameters (thoracic kyphosis angle, lumbar lordosis angle, and spinal inclination angle) and spinal mobility (thoracic spinal ROM, lumbar spinal ROM and total spinal ROM) as determined with SpinalMouse®. The radiological assessment of knee OA was based on the Kellgren and Lawrence classification, and the knee flexion angle was measured while the subject was standing. Spinal inclination angle and thoracic spinal ROM correlated significantly with knee OA on univariate analyses. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that an increase in spinal inclination angle (OR 1.073, p<0.05) was significantly associated with knee OA. Spinal inclination angle had significant positive correlation with knee flexion angle (r=0.286, p<0.001). The spinal inclination angle is the most important factor associated with knee OA.
Evaluation of the field-in-field technique with lung blocks for breast tangential radiotherapy

Hidekazu Tanaka, Shinya Hayashi, Yuichi Kajiura, Masashi Kitahara, Katsuya Matsuyama, Masayuki Kanematsu and Hiroaki Hoshi
pg(s) 339 - 345

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Several studies have reported the advantages of the field-in-field (FIF) technique in breast radiotherapy, including dose reduction in the lungs by using lung field blocks. We evaluated the FIF technique with lung blocks for breast tangential radiotherapy. Sixteen patients underwent free breathing (FB) computed tomography (CT), followed by two CT procedures performed during breath hold after light inhalation (IN) and light exhalation (EX). Three radiotherapy plans were created using the FIF technique based on the FB-CT images: one without lung blocks (LB0) and two with lung blocks whose monitor units (MUs) were 5 (LB5) and 10 (LB10), respectively. These plans were copied to the IN-CT and EX-CT images. V20Gy, V30Gy, and V40Gy of the ipsilateral lung and V100%, V95%, and the mean dose (Dmean) to the planning target volume (PTV) were analyzed. The extent of changes in these parameters on the IN-plan and EX-plan compared with the FB-plan was evaluated. V20Gy, V30Gy, and V40Gy were significantly smaller for FB-LB5 and FB-LB10 than for FB-LB0; similar results were obtained for the IN-plan and EX-plan. V100%, V95%, and Dmean were also significant smaller for FB-LB5 and FB-LB10 than for FB-LB0. The extent of changes in V20Gy, V30Gy, and V40Gy on the IN-plan and EX-plan compared with the FB-plan was not statistically significant. Lung blocks were useful for dose reduction in the lung and a simultaneous PTV decrease. This technique should not be applied in the general population.
Preoperative embolization of meningiomas with low-concentration n-butyl cyanoacrylate

Taiki Yamamoto, Tomotaka Ohshima, Masahiro Nishihori, Shunsaku Goto, Toshihisa Nishizawa, Shinji Shimato and Kyozo Kato
pg(s) 347 - 353

<Abstract> - < PDF >

The aim of this study was to determine the clinical safety and efficacy of preoperative embolization of meningiomas with low-concentration n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA). Nineteen cases of hypervascular intracranial meningiomas were treated by preoperative embolization with 14% NBCA, using a wedged superselective catheterization of feeding arteries and reflux-hold-reinjection technique. Clinical data of the patients and radiological and intra-surgical findings were reviewed. All tumors were successfully devascularized without any neurological complications. Marked reduction of tumor staining with extensive NBCA penetration was achieved in 13 cases. Perioperative blood transfusion was only required in two cases. These results indicate that preoperative embolization of meningiomas with low-concentration NBCA is both safe and effective.
Long-term effects of tolvaptan in patients requiring recurrent hospitalization for heart failure

Hayato Ogawa, Masayoshi Ajioka, Hideki Ishii, Takahiro Okumura, Yosuke Murase, Hiroyuki Osanai, Yoshihito Nakasima, Hiroshi Asano, Kazuyoshi Sakai and Toyoaki Murohara
pg(s) 355 - 362

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Although reports suggest that tolvaptan does not reduce survival or subsequent hospitalization rates in heart failure patients, its continuous use has shown good outcomes in some patients who cannot be effectively managed with high doses of loop diuretics. Therefore, we investigated the association of patient characteristics and continued tolvaptan use in heart failure patients with changes in the frequency and annual duration of patient hospitalization due to heart failure. We carefully reviewed the medical records of patients hospitalized due to heart failure who began tolvaptan therapy and continued with outpatient treatment between December 2010 and November 2013 (tolvaptan group); patients hospitalized for heart failure between May 2008 and March 2009 served as controls. We set the reference dates as the start of tolvaptan therapy (tolvaptan group) or as the date of admission (control group). The changes in hospitalization frequency and total hospitalization time due to heart failure, before and after the reference dates, were not significantly different between the tolvaptan and control groups. In the tolvaptan group, a high estimated glomerular filtration rate was a predictor of decreased hospitalization. Continuous tolvaptan use did not decrease hospitalization duration in all heart failure patients, but good renal function was predictive of a good response.
The prognostic impact of pulmonary metastasectomy in recurrent gynecologic cancers: a retrospective single-institution study

Manabu Adachi, Mika Mizuno, Hiroko Mitsui, Hiroaki Kajiyama, Shiro Suzuki, Ryuichiro Sekiya, Fumi Utsumi, Kiyosumi Shibata, Tetsuo Taniguchi, Koji Kawaguchi, Kohei Yokoi and Fumitaka Kikkawa
pg(s) 363 - 372

<Abstract> - < PDF >

The aim was to examine the impact of pulmonary metastasectomy in patients with recurrent gynecologic cancers. Thirty-seven patients with isolated lung metastases (< 3 nodules) in recurrent epithelial gynecologic cancers were treated at Nagoya University Hospital between 1985 and 2013. The clinicopathological data for the 23 patients who underwent surgical resection were retrospectively analyzed, and their survival was compared with patients who received chemotherapy only. The median age at the time of surgery was 56 years (range 28–77). The studied population comprised 7 patients with 2 or 3 nodules and 8 patients with chemoresistant tumors, including fourteen cervical, 4 endometrial, and 5 ovarian primary tumors, with 5-year overall survivals (OSs) after surgery of 61, 100, and 100%, respectively. The survival of recurrence-free interval after initial treatment (>2 years) was significantly favorable (5-year OS 100% vs. 41.7%, p=0.006). Among the 6 patients with re-recurrence of lung metastases, 5 patients underwent a second pulmonary metastasectomy, and all of the patients are currently alive without disease. None of the 29 operations yielded severe complications. Although the survival rate showed a tendency to be higher in the surgery group than in the chemotherapy-only group, no significant difference was observed (5-year OS 81.7% vs. 49.5%, p=0.072). Our results indicate that pulmonary metastasectomy contributed to long-term survival with a low-risk of complications. Surgery to remove isolated lung metastases might provide a favorable prognosis for patients with long recurrence-free intervals and for patients with chemoresistant or re-recurrent tumors.
Background parenchymal enhancement in preoperative breast MRI

Satoko Kohara, Satoko Ishigaki, Hiroko Satake, Akiko Kawamura, Hisashi Kawai, Toyone Kikumori and Shinji Naganawa
pg(s) 373 - 382

<Abstract> - < PDF >

We aimed to assess the influence of background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on surgical planning performed using preoperative MRI for breast cancer evaluation. Between January 2009 and December 2010, 91 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients (mean age, 55.5 years; range, 30−88 years) who underwent preoperative bilateral breast MRI followed by planned breast conservation therapy were retrospectively enrolled. MRI was performed to assess the tumor extent in addition to mammography and breast ultrasonography. BPE in the contralateral normal breast MRI at the early dynamic phase was visually classified as follows: minimal (n=49), mild (n=27), moderate (n=7), and marked (n=8). The correlations between the BPE grade and age, menopausal status, index tumor size, changes in surgical management based on MRI results, positive predictive value (PPV) of MRI, and surgical margins were assessed. Patients in the strong BPE groups were significantly younger (p=0.002) and generally premenopausal (p<0.001). Surgical treatment was not changed in 67 cases (73.6%), while extended excision and mastectomy were performed in 12 cases (13.2%), each based on additional lesions on MRI. Six of 79 (7.6%) patients who underwent breast conservation therapy had tumor-positive resection margins. In cases where surgical management was changed, the PPV for MRI-detected foci was high in the minimal (91.7%) and mild groups (66.7%), and 0% in the moderate and marked groups (p=0.002). Strong BPE causes false-positive MRI findings and may lead to overly extensive surgery, whereas MRI may be beneficial in select patients with weak BPE.
Assessment of endovascular coil configuration for embolization of intracranial aneurysms using computational fluid dynamics

Tomotaka Ohshima, Shigeru Miyachi, Ichiro Takahashi and Katsuya Ishii
pg(s) 383 - 388

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Endovascular coil embolization of arterial aneurysms is often complicated by reduced blood flow to branching arteries. To determine the optimal coil configuration for safe embolization of endovascular aneurysms without compromising blood flow in branching arteries. A 3-dimensional voxel model, built based on an unruptured vertebral artery–posterior inferior cerebellar artery (VA–PICA) aneurysm, predicted to show impairment of flow in the PICA during endovascular coil embolization (Case 0). Six different models of final coil configuration were generated and applied to this aneurysm. Case 1 was a round coil mass. Case 2 was designed with a stent assist. Cases 3, and 4 were designed with a neck remnant and Cases 5 and 6 incorporated a balloon neck remodeling technique. Computational fluid dynamics was used to analyze the flow in the PICA in each model. The average outflow to the PICA was highest in Case 0 and lowest in Case 2 (in descending order, Case 0, 5, 4, 6, 1, 3, and 2). There was better preservation of outflow to the PICA in the balloon neck remodeling models than in the neck remnant models. In a model of endovascular coil embolization, we found considerable differences in outflow to the branching artery with small changes in coil configuration. Careful preoperative planning is important to minimize the risk of thromboembolic events during and after endovascular coil embolization.
The number of cardiovascular surgeries in Japan may decrease after 2020

Akihiko Usui, Tomonobu Abe, Yoshimori Araki, Yuji Narita, Masato Mutsuga and Hideki Oshima
pg(s) 389 - 398

<Abstract> - < PDF >

The expected future number of cardiovascular operations is estimated based on the predicted Japanese population and the rate of cardiovascular surgery performance calculated from 16845 cases treated by the Nagoya University group of hospitals between 2001 and 2013. The population of <20-year-old individuals has decreased since 1990, while that of 20–64-year-old individuals has also decreased since 2000. The population of 65–79-year-old individuals is expected to peak in 2020, with only the population of ≥80-year-old individuals expected to increase until 2040. The performance rate of cardiovascular surgery per 100,000 population is low in the 20–64-year-old group and increases to reach a peak in the elderly population of 70–74-year-old individuals in valvular heart disease (55.5), ischemic heart disease (54.5) and thoracic aortic aneurysm (31.9) and decreases to about half those values in the ≥80-year-old age group. The number of cardiovascular operations (all types) per 100,000 was 40.6 in 2002, 42.1 in 2006 and 46.6 in 2010. The total number of expected cardiovascular operations is increasing slightly and will reach a peak in 2020 with an estimated 61,506 operations. It then decreases gradually to reach 55966 in 2035, on the premise that the cardiovascular surgery performance rate does not change from the present time. In order to maintain and expand to meet the medical needs of cardiovascular surgery, it is crucial that an effort be made to increase the cardiovascular surgery performance rate, especially in octogenarian patients.
Gel phantom study of a cryosurgical probe with a thermosiphon effect and liquid nitrogen-cooled aluminum thermal storage blocks

Haruo Isoda, Yasuo Takehara, Hitoshi Fujino, Kazuya Sone, Takeshi Suzuki, Yoshinari Tsuzaki, Kouji Miyazaki, Michio Fujie, Harumi Sakahara and Yasuaki Maekawa
pg(s) 399 - 407

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Cryosurgery is a minimally invasive treatment for certain types of cancers. Argon-based cryosurgical devices are available at present, however a large compressed gas cylinder with the pressure of 300 atmospheres is needed. To overcome these drawbacks, we developed a new cryosurgical probe measuring about 50 cm in length with separate lumens inside for liquid and gaseous ethylene to be used as a thermosiphon and liquid nitrogen-cooled aluminum thermal storage blocks. The probe needle was 8 cm in length and 3 mm in outer diameter. To investigate the freezing capabilities of our new cryosurgical system we inserted the needle 5cm into a poly-acrylamide gel phantom warmed to 36.5 °C. Thermal storage blocks made of aluminum, cooled at –196 °C in liquid nitrogen, were attached to the condenser of the probe and replaced with thermal storage blocks every 4 to 5 minutes to compensate for warming. We took digital camera images of the ice ball at the needle and measured the temperature in certain locations of the cryoprobe. Ice ball formation started at one minute after cooling. The sizes (longest diameter × minimum diameter) at 10, 20 and 30 minutes after the start of the procedure were 4.5×2.1, 4.5×3.1 and 4.6×3.7 cm, respectively. During the procedure the minimum temperature of the condenser was –85 °C and the needle was –65 °C. This newly developed compact cryosurgical probe with thermosiphon effect and cooled thermal storage blocks created an ice ball that can be used for cryosurgery within 20 minutes.
Utility of endoscopic diagnosis for postoperative small-bowel lesions in patients with Crohn’s disease at double-balloon endoscopy

Koji Yamada, Yoshiki Hirooka, Osamu Watanabe, Masanao Nakamura, Takeshi Yamamura, Kohei Funasaka, Eizaburo Ohno, Ryoji Miyahara, Hiroki Kawashima and Hidemi Goto
pg(s) 409 - 415

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) has enabled precise diagnosis and endoscopic intervention deep within the small bowel. In this study, we determine the factor related to the risk of endoscopic and clinical recurrences in the diagnosis of postoperative lesions including anastomosis for the patients with Crohn’s disease. Forty-eight patients (40 men and 8 women) had undergone small bowel resection previously and anastomotic sites were evaluated by Rutgeerts’ endoscopic scoring. The factors related to endoscopic and clinical recurrences at anastomosed sites were investigated. The analyzed items included the disease type, anastomosis procedure, frequency of surgery, time to endoscopy after surgery, the presence or absence of treatment with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), immunomodulators, steroids, maintenance administration of infliximab, and an elemental diet that required the ingestion of 900 kcal or more per day. Outcome of the anastomosed lesions was analyzed in the groups treated with and without postoperative anti-TNFa antibody including infliximab and adalimumab. DBE was performed 133 times, and 168 anastomosed lesions were observed for enrolled patients. Univariate analysis showed that time to DBE after surgery of 1.5-year or longer and the absence of 5-ASA administration were found to be significant factors leading to both endoscopic and clinical recurrences. The results of Kaplan-Meier estimate and the log rank test demonstrated that the clinical recurrence was avoided more often in the anti-TNFa antibody-treated group compared with the non-treated group. In conclusion, DBE was useful for accurate diagnosis of small-bowel lesions after surgery. Anti-TNFa antibody may help to decrease the postoperative recurrence rate of Crohn’s disease.
Trends in smoking rates among urban civil servants in Japan according to occupational categories

Takahiro Higashibata, Hiroko Nakagawa, Rieko Okada, Kenji Wakai and Nobuyuki Hamajima
pg(s) 417 - 423

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Occupation could affect the distribution of smoking status of workers, and the success of smoking cessation among workers depends partly on worksite conditions. Blue collar workers have been identified as a high-risk group for smoking. The aim of the present study was to examine trends in smoking rates among urban civil servants in Japan according to occupational categories. Subjects were urban civil servants aged 30–59 years. They annually reported smoking status in a questionnaire in a worksite health check-up each year from 2004 to 2011. Urban civil servants reported substantially lower current smoking rates than national smoking rates in Japan (20.2%, 23.8%, and 27.0% for males in their 30s, 40s, and 50s and 2.4%, 6.3%, and 9.5% for females, respectively, in 2011). In analysis by occupational categories, current smoking rates declined among all groups except female white collar workers in their 50s. The current and persistent smoking rates (number of current smokers/[number of ex-smokers and current smokers]) among blue collar workers were higher than those among white collar workers at almost all time points in all age and gender groups. This study found relatively lower current smoking rates among urban civil servants than the national average and higher current and persistent smoking rates in blue collar workers than in white collar workers among them. These results would help to make suitable worksite smoking cessation policies for each occupational category.
Prediction of background parenchymal enhancement on breast MRI using mammography, ultrasonography, and diffusion-weighted imaging

Akiko Kawamura, Hiroko Satake, Satoko Ishigaki, Mitsuru Ikeda, Reiko Kimura, Kazuhiro Shimamoto and Shinji Naganawa
pg(s) 425 - 437

<Abstract> - < PDF >

This retrospective study assessed the effects of menopausal status and menstrual cycle on background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and investigated whether the degree of BPE can be predicted by findings of mammography, ultrasonography (US), and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI). There were 160 study patients (80 premenopausal, 80 postmenopausal). Degree of BPE was classified into minimal, mild, moderate, or marked. Mammographic density was classified into fatty, scattered, heterogeneously dense, and extremely dense. BP echotexture on US and BP intensity on DWI were visually classified as homogeneous or heterogeneous. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of normal breast tissue were measured. Associations of the degree of BPE with menopausal status, menstrual cycle, or imaging features were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. No significant correlation was found between mammographic density and BPE (p=0.085), whereas menopausal status (p=0.000), BP echotexture (p=0.000), and BP intensity on DWI (p= 0.000), and ADC values (p=0.000) showed significant correlations with BPE. Multivariate analysis showed that postmenopausal status was an independent predictor of minimal BPE (p=0.002, OR=3.743). In premenopausal women, there was no significant correlation between menstrual cycle and BPE, whereas BP echotexture was an independent predictor of whether BPE was less than mild or greater than moderate (p=0.001, OR=26.575). BPE on breast MRI is associated with menopausal status and the findings of US and DWI. Because premenopausal women with heterogeneous BP echotexture may be predicted to show moderate or marked BPE, scheduling of breast MRI should preferentially be adjusted to the menstrual cycle.
The prevalence of homebound individuals in the elderly population: a survey in a city area in Japan

Hiroyuki Umegaki, Madoka Yanagawa, Hirotaka Nakashima, Taeko Makino and Masafumi Kuzuya
pg(s) 439 - 446

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Being homebound has been reported to be associated with a number of conditions. In the current study, the incidence of homebound individuals was surveyed in an urban city area in Japan. The city office randomly enrolled 5,000 residents of Nagoya City aged 65 and over. A questionnaire was sent to their principal caregivers by mail, and 3,444 (68.9 %) subjects returned the survey. The investigators obtained the totally anonymous data from the city office. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine. In the present study, the data of 3,053 (61.1 %) subjects for whom complete sets of data were available were employed for statistical analysis. The questionnaire included the following items: age, sex, the status of public long-term care insurance certification (none, support-level, care-level), self-rated health (good, fair, poor, very poor), states of living (single living, with only spouse, with other family members), and the frequency of outside excursions per a week (every day, once in a few day, one a week, rarely). An individual was defined as being homebound if his or her frequency of outside excursions was less than once per week. he incidence of the homebound elderly in the elderly population over 65 years old was 14.4 % in the current study. The status of certification in public long-term care insurance was associated with being homebound. Self-rated health was significantly worse in homebound individuals than in those non–homebound. The current survey found 14.4 % of the elderly was home-bound in a large city in Japan.
Gamma knife radiosurgery of craniopharyngioma: results of 30 cases treated at Nagoya Radiosurgery Center

Tatsuya Kobayashi, Takahiko Tsugawa, Manabu Hatano, Chisa Hashizume, Yoshimasa Mori and Yuta Shibamoto
pg(s) 447 - 454

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Evaluation of 30 cases of craniopharyngioma treated by Gamma Knife at Nagoya Radiosurgery Center (NRC), Nagoya Kyoritsu Hospital since July, 2004 has been made. The mean volume of the tumor was 2.64 ml, which was treated with the marginal dose of 11.7 Gy. Mean follow-up period was 79.9 months. The effects were evaluated by MRI findings, neuro-endocrine and hypothalamic signs and symptoms, complications and KPS every 3~6 months. As the results, complete remission was obtained in 8, partial remission in 12, no change in 6, progression in 3, in which two died by hypothalamic invasion. Tumor response rate was 68.9% and control rate 87.9%. Actuarial survival was 96% at 5 and 86% at 10 years. However, progression free survival was 76% and 76%, respectively. Using marginal dose of 11.7Gy to a smaller tumor, better control without complications has been obtained. KPS was excellent in 14, good in 9, fair in 2, poor in 1 and unknown in a case. Finally, there were three deaths, where two were died of tumor progression and one by infirmity. The progression of hypothalamic symptoms other than diabetes insipidus were found in two cases. Volume reduction and effective dose setting will be important for the improvement of QOL and survival after combined microsurgery and radiosurgery of craniopharyngioma.
Leg lengthening of more than 5 cm is a risk factor for sciatic nerve injury after total hip arthroplasty for adult hip dislocation

Yoshitoshi Higuchi, Yukiharu Hasegawa and Naoki Ishiguro
pg(s) 455 - 463

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Total hip arthroplasty (THA) in patients with high hip dislocation is challenging and technically demanding. Nerve injury is a problem associated with leg lengthening after THA. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors for sciatic nerve injury after THA in patients with high hip dislocation. Thirty-seven patients (41 THAs) with Crowe type IV hips were consecutively treated. The average leg lengthening (LL) was 3.2 cm. The average Harris hip score was improved from 57.5 points to 83.1 points at the final follow-up. The clinical outcomes after an average 6.4-years follow-up were satisfactory. Sciatic nerve injury was observed in two joints. LL in the two joints (two patients) with sciatic nerve injury was 5.2 cm and 6.7 cm, respectively. Leg lengthening of >5 cm was a risk factor for sciatic nerve injury. Therefore, leg lengthening of >5 cm should be avoided to prevent sciatic nerve injury.
Effects of the health insurance coverage extension on the use of outpatient services among small children in rural China

Nobuo Kawazoe, Guoxiang Liu, Chifa Chiang, Yan Zhang and Atsuko Aoyama
pg(s) 465 - 474

<Abstract> - < PDF >

A new public health insurance scheme has been gradually introduced in rural provinces in China since 2003. This would likely cause an increment in the use of health services. It is known that the association between health insurance coverage and health service utilization varies among different age groups. This study aims to examine the association between extending health insurance coverage and increment in outpatient service utilization of small children in rural China, and to identify other factors associated with the outpatient service utilization.
A household survey was conducted in 2 counties in north China in August 2010, targeting 107 selected households with a child aged 12–59 months. The questionnaire included modules on demographic information such as ages of children and parents, enrollment status of health insurance, the number of episodes of illness as perceived by parents, month of incidence of episode and outpatient service utilization at each episode. Based on the utilization at each episode of illness, a random effects logistic regression model was employed to analyze the association.
It was found that eligibility for the reimbursement of outpatient medical expenses was not significantly associated with decision to seek care or choice of health facility. This might be in part due to the low level of reimbursement which could discourage the use of insured, and to the close relationship with village clinic workers which would encourage the use of uninsured. Three other factors were significantly associated with increment in the outpatient service utilization; age of children, mother’s education, and number of children in a household.
Which variables should be considered in patients with stage II and III non-small cell lung cancer after neoadjuvant therapy?

Naoki Ozeki, Koji Kawaguchi, Takayuki Fukui, Koichi Fukumoto, Shota Nakamura, Toshiki Okasaka and Kohei Yokoi
pg(s) 475 - 480

<Abstract> - < PDF >

This study was designed to elucidate the predictive usefulness of the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST), a volume response (VR; a > 50% reduction in the tumor volume) and the post-neoadjuvant therapy maximum standardized uptake value (post-SUVmax) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after neoadjuvant therapy. Between December 2006 and June 2012, 33 patients with clinical stage II and III NSCLC who underwent pulmonary resection following neoadjuvant therapy were enrolled. The relationships between the variables and a pathological complete response (pCR), the disease-free survival (DFS) and the overall survival (OS) were analyzed. As neoadjuvant therapy, 24 patients received chemoradiotherapy, five patients received chemotherapy and four patients were given radiation therapy. Based on the RECIST, 12 tumors were classified as having a partial response and 21 tumors were classified as stable disease. Twenty-one tumors showed a VR and 12 did not. Twenty-five tumors had a post-SUVmax ≤7.5 and eight had a post-SUVmax >7.5. Eight tumors had a pCR. In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, both a non-VR and a post-SUVmax >7.5 were significant variables predicting the DFS (p = 0.0422 and 0.0127, respectively), but either was not for OS. The post-SUVmax was also a significant variable for the pCR rate (p = 0.0067). The post-treatment SUVmax can be a valid alternative variable that can be used to predict the effect of neoadjuvant therapy and the survival of patients with stage II and III NSCLC.

CASE REPORTS

Hemorrhagic lumbar synovial cyst: case report and literature review

Gregory Cannarsa, Shannon W. Clark, Norah Chalouhi, Mario Zanaty and Joshua Heller
pg(s) 481 - 492

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Intraspinal synovial cysts are infrequent causes of back and radicular leg pain. Commonly associated with degenerative spinal disease, the majority of synovial cysts appear in the lumbar spine. Rarely, intracystic hemorrhage can occur through an unclear mechanism. Similarly rare, cysts may also become migratory. The pathogenesis of hemorrhagic synovial cysts remains uncertain and their potential for migration also remains unclear. A 36 year-old male presented to the clinic with 5 months of back pain and leg pain that began after a work-related injury. An initial MRI obtained by another surgeon 3 month prior demonstrated an epidural cystic mass with T1 hypointensity and T2 hyperintensity at L2-L3. With worsening pain, the patient came to our clinic for a second opinion. A second MRI demonstrated resolution of the L2-L3 epidural cystic mass and formation of a new epidural cystic mass at L3-L4 causing compression of the thecal sac. The patient subsequently underwent decompressive hemilaminectomy with cyst removal. We present a case of two lumbar synovial cysts, separated over time and a vertebral level and giving the appearance of a single, migratory cyst. This is the first case of an “occult migratory” synovial cyst with repeat MR imaging capturing spontaneous resolution of the initial cyst and formation of a hemorrhagic cyst one level below. We also present a summary of the 44 cases of hemorrhagic synovial cysts reported in the literature and propose a mechanism that may account for the hemorrhagic and migratory progression in some patients.
Skull involvement in a pediatric case of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis

Toru Watanabe, Hiroyuki Ono, Yoshitaka Morimoto, Yoshiro Otsuki, Masami Shirai, Akira Endoh, Masaaki Naito, Yoshiya Inoue and Teruaki Hongo
pg(s) 493 - 500

<Abstract> - < PDF >

An 11-year-old boy was diagnosed with chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and presented with right sacro-femoral and occipital lesions. Initially, a tumor was suspected. However, the bone biopsy showed osteomyelitis with a negative bacterial culture. Bone scintigraphy revealed inflammatory changes on multiple bone lesions. The slight elevation in inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein was of little clinical value. He was diagnosed with CRMO by sacral biopsy, and the clinical course progressed, with the presence of a new occipital lesion observed after the 1-year follow-up. The administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs successfully improved his clinical symptoms. The presence of a skull lesion in the occipital bone of a pediatric patient with CRMO has not been previously reported.
Accessory scrotum with perineal lipoma diagnosed prenatally: case report and review of the literature

Naruhiko Murase, Hiroo Uchida and Kiyoshi Hiramatsu
pg(s) 501 - 506

<Abstract> - < PDF >

We report a case of accessory scrotum (AS) in the perineal region with peduncular lipoma, diagnosed prenatally. A male fetus of 31 weeks’ gestation was referred to our department with a perineal mass. Prenatal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass of 1.0 × 1.2 cm located posterior to the scrotum. No other abnormalities were noted during pregnancy. The patient was delivered vaginally at 38 weeks of gestation. On physical examination, a soft peduncular mass with a rugged and pigmented swelling was located between the normally developed scrotum and the anus. There were no specific symptoms or any other associated congenital anomalies. We completely excised the mass at one month of age. A histological examination revealed lipoma, with tissue suggestive of scrotum, so a definite diagnosis of AS was made. AS is a rare congenital anomaly of the scrotum. We review the literature.
Fatal case of cervical blunt vascular injury with cervical vertebral fracture: a case report

Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Shiro Imagama, Toshiaki Okura, Hisatake Yoshihara, Zenya Ito, Kei Ando, Junichi Ukai, Ryuichi Shinjo, Akio Muramoto, Tomohiro Matsumoto, Hiroaki Nakashima and Naoki Ishiguro
pg(s) 507 - 514

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) is usually caused by neck trauma that predominantly occurs in high-impact injuries. BCVI may occur due to damage to both the vertebral and carotid arteries, and may be fatal in the absence of appropriate treatment and early diagnosis. Here, we describe a case of cerebral infarction caused by a combination of a lower cervical spinal fracture and traumatic injury to the carotid artery by a direct blunt external force in a 52-year-old man. Initially, there was no effect on consciousness, but 6 hours later loss of consciousness occurred due to traumatic dissection of the carotid artery that resulted in a cerebral infarction. Brain edema was so extensive that decompression by emergency craniectomy and internal decompression were performed by a neurosurgeon, but with no effect, and the patient died on day 7. This is a rare case of cerebral infarction caused by a combination of a lower cervical spinal fracture and traumatic injury to the carotid artery. The case suggests that cervical vascular injury should be considered in a patient with a blunt neck trauma and that additional imaging should be performed.
Spinal cord herniation with characteristic bone change: a case report

Tasuku Imai, Yukimi Nakane, Eiji Tachibana and Koichiro Ogura
pg(s) 515 - 520

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Spinal cord herniation (SCH) is a rare disease characterized by herniation of the thoracic spinal cord through an anterior dural defect, presenting with progressive myelopathy. A case of a 69-year-old woman who presented with Brown-Sequard syndrome and a bone defect, in which an osteophyte created a hemisphere-like cavity with spinal cord herniation, is presented. The strangled spinal cord was released, and the defect was closed microsurgically using an artificial dural patch to prevent re-herniation. Postoperatively, the patient experienced gradual improvement in neurologic function. The SCH mechanism and surgical strategy are discussed.
Bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting during David procedure complicated with coronary insufficiency

Suguru Ohira, Kiyoshi Doi and Hitoshi Yaku
pg(s) 521 - 524

<Abstract> - < PDF >

A 47-year-old woman diagnosed with Marfan syndrome underwent valve-sparing aortic root replacement for aortic regurgitation and annulo-aortic ectasia. Her cardiac function was normal. Preoperative coronary angiography did not demonstrate any stenosis. The David reimplantation procedure with a 28-mm Valsalva graft was performed. Both coronary orifices were reconstructed in a button fashion with Teflon felt reinforcement. After aortic declamping, marked bleeding was noted from the left coronary button, requiring a second pump run. Graft interposition using the great saphenous vein was performed for left coronary artery reconstruction. The reconstructed right coronary button was also damaged due to the fragile tissue, and interposed by the vein graft in the same fashion. After the aorta was declamped, the global left ventricular wall motion was significantly impaired, and did not improve with time. Coronary insufficiency was considered. Beating-heart coronary artery bypass grafting with the in-situ bilateral internal thoracic arteries was performed. After revascularization, the left ventricular function was improved. In certain emergent situations compromised with coronary insufficiency, this procedure could be an option to revascularize the coronary arteries.
Utility of a 3-dimensional full-scale NaCl model for rib strut grafting for anterior fusion for cervicothoracic kyphosis

Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Shiro Imagama, Akio Muramoto, Zenya Ito, Kei Ando, Hideki Yagi, Tetsuro Hida, Kenyu Ito, Yoshimoto Ishikawa, Mikito Tsushima and Naoki Ishiguro
pg(s) 525 - 530

<Abstract> - < PDF >

In severe spinal deformity, pain and neurological disorder may be caused by spinal cord compression. Surgery for spinal reconstruction is desirable, but may be difficult in a case with severe deformity. Here, we show the utility of a 3D NaCl (salt) model in preoperative planning of anterior reconstruction using a rib strut in a 49-year-old male patient with cervicothoracic degenerative spondylosis. We performed surgery in two stages: a posterior approach with decompression and posterior instrumentation with a pedicle screw; followed by a second operation using an anterior approach, for which we created a 3D NaCl model including the cervicothoracic lesion, spinal deformity, and ribs for anterior reconstruction. The 3D NaCl model was easily scraped compared with a conventional plaster model and was useful for planning of resection and identification of a suitable rib for grafting in a preoperative simulation. Surgery was performed successfully with reference to the 3D NaCl model. We conclude that preoperative simulation with a 3D NaCl model contributes to performance of anterior reconstruction using a rib strut in a case of cervicothoracic deformity.
A new modification of laparoscopic percutaneous extraperitoneal closure procedure for repairing pediatric femoral hernias involving a special needle and a wire loop

Takahisa Tainaka, Hiroo Uchida, Yasuyuki Ono, Akihide Tanano, Chiyoe Shirota, Kazuki Yokota, Naruhiko Murase, Satoshi Makita and Ryo Shirotsuki
pg(s) 531 - 535

<Abstract> - < PDF >

Femoral hernias are relatively rare in children, and more than half of pediatric femoral hernias are misdiagnosed. A 3-year-old boy was treated for an indirect inguinal hernia at the age of 2, but he exhibited an inguinal bulge one month after the operation. He underwent laparoscopy, and a right femoral hernia was detected. The femoral hernia was laparoscopically repaired via two small incisions: a 1.0-cm umbilical incision for a 3-mm 30° laparoscope and 3-mm grasping forceps and a 5-mm right lateral incision for 3-mm grasping forceps. After the hernia sac had been reflected into the abdominal cavity and resected, the iliopubic tract was sutured to Cooper’s ligament using a laparoscopic percutaneous extracorporeal closure (LPEC) needle and 2–0 non-absorbable sutures. Laparoscopy enables the accurate diagnosis of rare and often missed pediatric femoral hernias. Our laparoscopic technique for treating femoral hernias is easy and effective. Although these early results are encouraging, more cases involving longer follow-up periods should be accumulated to confirm the efficacy of our technique.